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vapor-phase organic cleaning

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are usually removed by vapor degreasing. Heavy oxide or mill scale should be removed by either chemical pickling or mechanical cleaning, such as grinding, grit blasting, or wire brushing. When grit blasting, such materials as sand or aluminum oxide should not be used, because they impart a refractory barrier...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... solutions of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Each of the tanks is equipped with a purge ventilation system designed to continuously remove hydrogen gas and organic vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The flow path for the purge...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... isostatic pressing vendor uses only electronics-grade argon, with a maximum of 5 ppm oxygen and 10 ppm water vapor. The same vendor requires that all parts be cleaned by degreasing and sandblasting to “white metal.” References References 1. Levine D.J. , Metallurgical Relationships in Porous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a certain amount of organic contamination is expected due to atmospheric exposure, the amount of C found on the as-received surface is relatively high. Some of this organic may have been introduced from surface or vapor-phase transfer of plastic additives or contaminants from the plastic bag in which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., nonscratching brush Washing with organic solvents Use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath and appropriate solvents. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath is very useful in speeding up the cleaning process. Use of a mild acid or alkali, depending on the metal. A solution that attacks the deposits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... method on the list is considered nondestructive. These include: Removal of debris with a blast of pressurized gas or air Brushing with a soft, nonscratching brush Washing with organic solvents Use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath and appropriate solvents. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and/or wear conditions are being investigated. In an analysis of a fracture, the following steps are described: Selection, identification, preservation, and/or cleaning of critical specimens Macroscopic examination and analysis (fracture surfaces, secondary cracks, and other surface phenomena...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., composition of fuel, amount of excess combustion air, type and amount of water-conditioning chemicals added, type and amount of contaminants in condensate and make-up feedwater, frequency and methods of cleaning fire-side and water-side surfaces of steam generators, materials specified as to alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... from coal-based thermal power plants. With coal as the fuel, there are two distinct technologies used for power generation: subcritical and supercritical. Supercritical is that state of a substance in which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase (i.e., it behaves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with EDS probe attachment is referred to as the SEM/EDS technique and has a typical depth of analysis of ~1 to 3 μm. However, because the plastics are basically organic and are typically composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, the primary use of the SEM/EDS technique is limited to identifying...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 28 ). These contaminants combine in the gas phase to form alkali metal sulfates; if the temperature of the alloy is below the dewpoint of the alkali sulfate vapors and above the sulfate melting points, molten sulfate deposits are formed ( Ref 28 ). Molten sodium sulfate is the principal agent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... organization, being complex mixtures of cleavage and fatigue. Much study of these areas convinced the author that there are four major episodes of stable crack growth represented. Cracking in area A will be discussed in some detail, but area B is essentially similar. Cracking initiated in area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... psi) ( Ref 6 , 25 – 27 ). The different methods for producing CNTs are as follows ( Ref 25 – 27 , 29 ): Surface-mediated growth of vertically aligned tubes by plasma-enhanced vapor deposition Chemical vapor deposition Laser ablation High-pressure carbon monoxide Arc discharge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Collection and Preparation Timing Explosion, fire, and heat damage assessments are usually done soon after the area is declared safe for access. Critical evidence can be shifted by the elements and by human activities such as cleaning up, so it is important to collect damage indicators, chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... but slow enough to minimize distortion Contamination Organic contamination (hydraulic fluids) Increases cooling rate during vapor phase Increases cooling rate during convection Increases tendency toward cracking and distortion Oxidation Increases viscosity Slows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the intentional forming of a complete exterior chromium trioxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) film by completely cleaning the surface and allowing oxygen to contact and react with the surface. In the common galvanic series, a noble position is assumed by stainless steels in the passive state, while a more active position...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... illustrated in binary alloys that contain phases of differing corrosion potentials. The grain in one phase becomes anodic to grain in the second phase in the microstructure, thus producing an electrolytic cell when the proper electrolyte is present. Another illustration is ductile cast iron, where...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of soluble salts containing certain specific anions can inhibit the crack-producing effect of a given environment on a given alloy. Certain aspects of the metallurgical structure of an alloy (such as grain size, crystal structure, and number of phases) influence the susceptibility of the alloy to SCC...