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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effect of the medium circulating through the heat exchanger. For example, an acid-containing vapor stream may not be corrosive above its dew point, but if the stream is cooled below its dew point, severe general attack can result from acid condensation on internal surfaces of tube walls. On the outside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., there is minimal hydrogen through the expected vapor exhaust stream in the vent pipe. This very low concentration of hydrogen in the vapor exhaust was concluded to be below the minimum necessary to induce HE, particularly due to the presence of oxygen, as discussed further. There is a possibility of hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A nozzle in a wastewater vaporizer began leaking after approximately three years of service with acetic and formic acid wastewaters at 105 deg C (225 deg F) and 414 kPa (60 psig). The shell of the vessel was weld fabricated from 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) E-Brite stainless steel plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., and Inco alloy C-276) were placed directly in the hot gas stream, containing HCl and Cl2, for in situ testing. Results of this investigation showed that nickel-chromium corrosion-resistant alloys, such as Inconel 600, Inconel 625, and Inco alloy C-276, performed well in this environment. Laboratory testing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of vapor-filled bubbles in a flowing stream of liquid. Damage occurs at the points of bubble collapse. In steam plants, the components most often damaged by cavitation erosion are feed lines, pump casings, and pump impellers. Figure 12 shows the typical appearance of a part extensively damaged...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by a plain-water rinse. The water wash chemicals vaporized before they reached the stage 1 HPT nozzles. The highest-boiling-point constituent boils at roughly 315 to 370 °C (600 to 700 °F). The engine was also washed each time it was taken off-line for maintenance. The gas turbine was brought up to cranking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and solid particle erosion. Cavitation erosion is due to the formation and collapse, within a liquid, of cavities or bubbles that contain vapor or gas or both. Liquid impingement erosion is due to impacts by liquid drops or jets. Solid impingement erosion is due to impacts by solid particles. Impingement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and corrosion that individually or together can lead to the failure of pumps, in which cavitation is the most common type [ 1 , 2 ]. Cavitation can be defined as metal loss from the surface caused by high stresses associated with the collapse of vapor bubbles in the fluid. It, commonly, is made...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Udimet 500 Superalloy , Pract. Fail. Anal. , Vol 2 ( No. 2 ), ASM International , April 2002 , p 51 38. Ganesan P. , Smith G.D. , and Shoemaker L.E. , “The Effects of Excursions of Oxygen and Water Vapor Contents on Nickel-Containing Alloy Performance in a Waste...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the Sprengel forepumps for further purification. The unit can increase gas pressure from microns up to approximately 30 kPa, with a maximum capacity of approximately 8000 cm 3 /minute (similar to most Hg vacuum pumps). Mercury is vaporized in the boiler and pushed to the top of the pump where it condenses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at all heat-flux levels. However, the resistance of a vapor film in steam of low quality is relatively high; therefore, at the onset of film boiling, a large temperature difference between the tube wall and the bulk fluid is required to sustain a high heat flux across the film. The effect of the onset...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... not have sufficient capacity to carry away all of this steam. The resulting accumulation created a steam pocket and a vapor/liquid interface at a level opposite the 910 °C (1670 °F) interior of the converter, and leaks developed at and near the level of the interface. Removal and examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in ethylene manufacturing plants are as cold as −170 °C (−270 °F), thus making aluminum alloys the preferred materials of construction. Normally, the gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons in the aluminum equipment are not corrosive. The process streams are dry, and the organic chemicals do not react...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of thermal/environmental barrier coating (T/EBC) architecture showing primary environmental protective subsystems and the microstructure of coatings deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. CMAS, calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate. Reprinted with permission from Wiley Fig. 33 Effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... experienced in practice. Condensation leads to the formation of sulfate in magnesia at 1100 °C (2000 °F), in lime at 1400 °C (2550 °F), and in alumina at 600 °C (1100 °F). When alkali vapors (Na 2 O) are present with SO 2 , condensation of Na 2 SO 4 overlaps with SO 2 attack. Volatile chlorides also play...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reactions and are most frequently found in chemical process streams. All of the above reactions are quite similar; they consume electrons. The above partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed in water...