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vapor pressure

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the expeller vanes, are all consistent with this diagnosis. Cavitation—the transient formation of vapor- or vacuum-filled voids in the liquid—occurs whenever either of the following two conditions occurs: The velocity-induced pressure drop due to Bernoulli's effect depresses the local pressure below...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... turbulent flow. Vapor bubbles form when the local pressure is reduced below the vapor pressure and implode as they pass into a region of higher pressure. Collapse pressures are extremely high and can cause loss of material, surface damage, and/or changes in properties/appearance. For the case of a zirconium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... process. The pressure in the railroad tank car was approximately 0.79 to 0.83 MPa (115 to 120 psig). To relieve the built-up pressure, a vent line was attached to the railroad tank car to discharge to the facility flare stack, which in turn would burn the discharged vapors. Through coordination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis more difficult. Cavitation Mechanisms Cavitation can occur if the pressure on a liquid is reduced sufficiently to cause formation of vapor-filled voids, or cavities (bubbles), even at room temperature. When the liquid that contains cavities is subsequently subjected to higher hydrostatic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... on the condition of small-scale yield. Assuming an LPG cylinder to be a cylindrical container, tensile stress in the direction of the circumference caused by the internal pressure is calculated from equation 2 . (Eq 2) σ = PD + 12 Pt 200 t P : internal Pressure (MPa) The vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in particular locations to a critical value that is related to the vapor pressure of the liquid. In those locations, cavities can be nucleated in the liquid, grow to a stable size, and be swept downstream. As the cavities reach regions of higher pressure, they become unstable and collapse violently. Cavity...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis of these signals can provide information concerning the location and structural significance of the detected discontinuities. Some of the significant applications of acoustic-emission inspection are: Continuous surveillance of pressure vessels and nuclear primary-pressure boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Kielec D.J. and Birk A.M. : “ Analysis of Fire-Induced Ruptures of 400-L Propane Tanks ,” J. Pressure Vessel Technol. (Trans. ASME) , Aug 1997 , 119 , p. 365 10.1115/1.2842317 . 3. Venart J.E.S. : “ Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions (BLEVE): Possible Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Y.F. , Geng B. , Wang Z.P. , Yao Y.H. , Shi C.Z. , Research on the microstructure of the oxidation film of T91 steel tube under the high temperature and high pressure water vapor . Foundry Technol . 26 ( 3 ), 202 – 204 ( 2005 ) 5. Tu S.-T. , Zhang H. , Zhou...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the SO2 vapor environment. However, failure analysis showed that cavitation erosion was the responsible failure mechanism, not corrosion as might be expected. Cavitation erosion Hardness Microstructure SO2 316 UNS S31600 1006 UNS G10060 Erosive wear Erosion - corrosion Cavitation wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... S31603 Introduction Distillation towers are used in the chemical industry to separate mixtures of chemicals. The chemicals inside the distillation towers are heated, causing lower boiling point chemicals to vaporize and rise to the top of the tower. Hot vapors leaving the top of the distillation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., however, showed higher mass losses at 705 °C (1300 °F) than at 925 °C (1700 °F). At 815 and 925 °C (1500 and 1700 °F), the higher vapor pressure of molten FeCl 2 may have caused any halide corrosion product to be removed as quickly as it formed. Also, chromium is more active at the surface at higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of thermal/environmental barrier coating (T/EBC) architecture showing primary environmental protective subsystems and the microstructure of coatings deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. CMAS, calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate. Reprinted with permission from Wiley Fig. 33 Effect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to premature failure by stress-corrosion cracking under sustained loading if the atmosphere was saturated with water vapor. Dissimilar metals, bonding Pressure welding Stainless steels, bonding Welded joints, corrosion Silver Stress-corrosion cracking Background Silver solid-state bonded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... in the coil with the majority of the loops being tight wound and final three loops at the outlet end of the vaporizer being loose wound. The coil was design to ASME Code Section 1, Division 1, and the design conditions were an internal pressure of 1 MPa and temperature of 400 C. Results are given...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... minimizes the release of radionuclides in the event that the exhaust system becomes blocked or the exhaust fan fails. These blockages may pressurize the tank and force tank vapors out of the system inlet or riser penetrations. The inlet HEPA filter prevents radionuclide escape in such a condition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... in the modules, the relatively high moisture condition of the plywood could supply condensed water at the aluminum interface. Changing temperatures of the aluminum (hot days and cool nights) induced alternating vapor pressure gradients with liquid water condensing at the aluminum-plywood interface when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the powder to solidify under pressure, but at the same time releases water vapors, phenol, ammonia, and several other gases into the air in the factory. Some of these vapors and gases are retained in the wood flour in the cases and covers. Discussion The formation of films can occur during assembly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... pressure of approximately 11 kPa (7 psi). Each hopper truck held from 9,100 to 11,800 kg (10 to 13 tons) of prills when fully loaded and handled approximately 90,700 kg (100 tons) per month. The walls of the hoppers were made of 2.7 mm (0.105 in.) thick flat-rolled carbon steel sheet of structural quality...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... production of vapor. The aqua tubular boilers are the most common concerning thermoelectrical plants or generation of electric energy in general, except for small scale units. The work pressure of such boilers can reach up to 26 MPa, i.e., higher than the critical point [ 2 ]. Accidents in Boilers...