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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Introduction The mercury diffusion pump in tritium is a three-stage, booster-ejector pump originally manufactured by Consolidated Vacuum Corporation (CVC). This pump pulls gas from the furnaces through a uranium decomposer bed to the Sprengel forepumps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... until the vacuum reached 11 in. of Hg. At that point the gap voltages of the Dodd bar probes started to change. By the time full vacuum was achieved, the relative motion between the turbine and the pump was over 0.100 in. When the vacuum was released the readings moved 0.100 in. in the opposite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was converted to a natural-gas-fired cogeneration power plant. Leaking tubes were first discovered when the vacuum pumps were tested during startup of the cogeneration plant. Circumstances Leading to Failure The condenser history was developed from a review of plant records and layup procedures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The repeated failure of rubber-covered rotors and volute liners in a flue gas desulfurization system after conversion from lime slurry reagent to limestone slurry reagent was investigated. The pump was a horizontal 50 x 65 mm (2 x 2.5 in.) Galiger pump with a split cast iron case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a high vacuum to be maintained in the gun area while samples are being inserted or removed. Separate pumps (such as titanium ion-getter pumps) attached to the gun continue to operate while the sample chamber is vented to atmosphere. These features are standard for field-emission and LaB 6 guns but add...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a series of apertures and vacuum pumps. Specimen Preparation Preparation of samples for observation using an SEM has undergone a revolution in recent years with the introduction of low-pressure and environmental SEMs. Prior to their introduction, SEM samples were required to be electrically...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion can often occur in the absence of mechanical wear, the converse is rarely true. Corrosion accompanies the wear process to some extent in all environments, except in a vacuum and inert atmospheres. Corrosion and wear often combine to cause aggressive damage in a number of industries, such as mining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-temperature reaction between liquid hydrogen (LH) and liquid oxygen (LOX) that produces the thrust required for propulsion. To maintain low operating temperatures, NARloy-Z, a material with high thermal conductivity, is used for the liner, with cooling channels machined into it through which LH is pumped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... stresses, with engine crankshafts and pump shafts as typical examples. Apart from wear by bearings, which can be a major contributor to shaft failure (see the section “Wear” in this article), the most common cause of shaft failure is metal fatigue. Fatigue is a weakest-link phenomenon; hence, failures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The shaft may then fail by another means, such as by fracture, or may cease to perform its designed function. Foreign particles, such as sand, dirt and other debris, in the lubricant can cause wear of a shaft. Example 3: Wear Failure of a Fuel-Pump Drive Shaft Caused by the Presence of Sand, Metallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Maximum operating temperature 70 °C Minimum design metal temperature 0 °C Design pressure Atmospheric Design vacuum Atmospheric Corrosion allowances  Shell 0 mm  Bottom plates 0 mm  Roof plates 0 mm  Roof framing 0 mm  Wind design per API 650 162 km/h Materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., internal gear pumps, and accumulators to minimize pressure fluctuations. Different types of hydraulic couplings (with a wide range of sizes) were used; the type generally depended on whether the couplings were used to connect piping or to plug into equipment. Some couplings (termed stud-standpipe adaptors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to failure by flaking, can start. Corrosion of bearings can take place during standing periods or even when being stored although, if modern packaging methods are adopted, trouble from the latter cause should not arise. The outer race shown in Figure 21 , was taken from a pump shaft bearing which had...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (for example, from a water leak) collects on the clamp surface. Water supply systems that use PEX tubing are described later in this article. Fig. 2 Simplified process flow diagram of potential damage mechanisms for the crude unit/vacuum unit of a refinery. Red circles indicate those types of damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and loading. Example 4: Damaged Austenitic Cast Iron Impellers in a Rotary Pump Caused by Cracks Initiated at Zones of Localized Shrinkage Porosity <xref rid="a0003508-ref11" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 11)</xref> Two damaged impellers manufactured from austenitic cast iron came from a rotary pump used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... °F), which is well into heat exposure zone VI. Other Equipment and Structures In any investigation, process equipment is not the only thing being assessed. Ancillary equipment such as piping valves and pumps are mixed into the units and are often damaged. Also, there are instrumentation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “Cleaning”). These replicas can be coated with a thin layer (about 20 nm, or 2 × 10 −8 m, thick) of vacuum-deposited gold or aluminum to improve their reflectivity, or they may be shadowed at an angle to increase the contrast of fine detail. The replicas may be examined by incident-light or transmitted...