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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...- and cobalt-base alloys and precious metals (gold, platinum, and palladium). These filler materials, when used with improved atmospheres such as ultradry hydrogen and vacuum and equipment such as vacuum furnaces with gas-quenching capabilities, have raised the upper-temperature brazing limit to above 1650 °C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A rocket-motor case made of consumable-electrode vacuum arc remelted D-6ac alloy steel failed during hydrostatic proof-pressure testing. Close visual examination, magnetic-particle inspection, and hardness tests showed cracks that appeared to have occurred after austenitizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in a region depleted of chromium and nickel. This condition coincides with a microstructural inhomogeneity consisting of large, soft ferrite grains. Its origin was probably contamination of the solidifying ingot during the consumable vacuum arc remelting operation. Bevel gears Forgings Gear teeth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the vibration. Modifications to the supervisory system to allow DC coupling are being considered. This will allow the operators to avoid the unstable load ranges, because nothing can be done to prevent the Rheingan Influence. Case #2: Vibration of Steel Strip Caused by an Induction Furnace in a Steel Mill...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A large diameter steel pipe reinforced by stiffening rings with saddle supports was subjected to thermal cycling as the system was started up, operated, and shut down. The pipe functioned as an emission control exhaust duct from a furnace and was designed originally using lengths...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the shaft. These samples were heat-treated to give the same hardness as that found on shaft under the inner race. This was done in a vacuum furnace capable of vacuum quenching to avoid decarburization during quenching. The hardening was done at 850 °C for 45 min followed by oil quenching, and tempering...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and fracture toughness at -40 °C (-40 °F) and at room temperature. Fatigue-strength data were also obtained from manufacturers. Except the vanadium-modified 4337 gun steel (4337V) and the British I steel, which were air melted and vacuum degassed, all alloys came as vacuum-melted bar stock (induction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the height of the problem in an attempt to eliminate the tube embrittlement, including the alkaline dip, pickling operation, furnace atmosphere, drawing lubricant, and temperature control during hot drawing and annealing. Furthermore, tube embrittlement was not always observed, but when present was typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Introduction The mercury diffusion pump in tritium is a three-stage, booster-ejector pump originally manufactured by Consolidated Vacuum Corporation (CVC). This pump pulls gas from the furnaces through a uranium decomposer bed to the Sprengel forepumps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Results of failure analyses of two aircraft crankshafts are described. These crankshafts were forged from AMS 6414 (similar composition to AISI 4340) vacuum arc remelted steels with sulfur contents of 0.003% (low sulfur) and 0.0005% (ultra-low sulfur). A grain boundary sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a specified percentage. This is accomplished by simply burning off the polymer in a muffle furnace at 600 °C (1112 °F) and weighing the leftover ash. By viewing the ash content under a microscope, one can differentiate between glass and minerals. More sophisticated and highly accurate tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the hydrogen content and alkali element concentration as well as to remove nonmetallic inclusions. For example, vacuum degassing is used to remove dissolved oxygen and hydrogen from steel, thus reducing the number and size of indigenous nonmetallic inclusions and the likelihood of internal fissures or flakes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is ferritic. Etched with 2% nital. Original magnification: 235× Carburization and Decarburization Meticulous control of the furnace atmosphere is needed to prevent unintentional carburization and decarburization. Such control is not difficult with properly instrumented heat treating equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be compatible with the equipment available—for example, heat-treatment furnaces and surface-finishing devices. Designing tools and dies is more difficult than designing components made from structural steels because of the difficulty in predicting the service stresses. Despite advances made in design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... also be compatible with the equipment available, for example, heat treatment furnaces and surface-finishing devices. Designing tools and dies is more difficult than designing components made from structural steels because of the difficulty in predicting the service stresses. Despite advances made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for construction of the bridge was melted by an electric furnace process using charge materials composed of purchased bundles of steel scrap, broken iron molds, and recycled steel scrap from the steel producer's shop. A one-slag practice was used, with liquid steel vacuum degassed by the DH method, which entails...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... oxides. 155× Steam Bubbles Steam bubbles result from exposure of any liquid metal to moisture. Moisture in the air, in gases of combustion, in furnace and ladle linings, and in mold materials provides sources of steam bubbles. Whatever the source, the entrained water is released as steam...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... treated to reduce the hydrogen content and alkali element concentration as well as to remove nonmetallic inclusions. For example, vacuum degassing is used to remove dissolved oxygen and hydrogen from steel, thus reducing the number and size of indigenous nonmetallic inclusions and the likelihood...