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uses of cobalt

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 10 Crack shown in a typical radiographic testing film taken around a nozzle using cobalt-60 source More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Two of four adjustable Moore pins, which had been used to stabilize a proximal femur fracture, were found to be broken and deformed at their threads. The pins were made from a cobalt-chromium alloy and were not in the same condition. Brittle precipitates in the grains and grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... manufacturing company. Both the sintered coating and the substrate were manufactured from cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy. Pertinent Specifications Medical prostheses used to replace joints in the human body are frequently manufactured as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy investment castings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... oxidation thermal-barrier coated superalloys spalling microstructural analysis operating time ECY768 (cobalt-base superalloy) Co-Ni-Cr-Al-Y (cobalt-nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium alloy) Introduction The largest use of coatings on superalloys is on components in the hot gas section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... of copper, nickel, and cobalt. A steel of similar composition, X38Cr-MoV5 1 (W-No. 2343) was used for hot working tools. The sliver originated from a damaged press tool. Hot working Impurities Studs Aluminum Metalworking-related failures In a continuously cast aluminum press stud two small...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract This investigation characterizes five surgical stainless steel piercings and one niobium piercing that caused adverse reactions during use, culminating with the removal of the jewelry. Chemical composition shows that none of the materials are in accordance with ISO standards...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... and nickel were detected in the discolored area, along with lower amounts of iron, manganese, sodium, calcium, cobalt, and sulfur, in addition to the surrounding glass wool elements. Results of this limited evaluation showed the discoloration was caused by the presence of elevated levels of chromium, nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... products are liquid, and such corrosion is termed hot corrosion [ Ref 7 , 8 ]. The materials used to withstand such an environment are usually alloys which have been successfully used in high temperature gas turbines, in which they are subjected to similar severe operating condition [ 9...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... possible strength be used for prostheses so that the highest possible stresses can be tolerated. In this instance, a class of materials was chosen that was probably marginally biocompatible but that possessed less than half the strength of the wrought stainless or cast cobalt-chromium alloys traditionally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... deleterious effects on the body. Metallic materials such as stainless steel, 316L, cobalt-chromium alloys, and pure titanium and its alloys have been used for surgical implant materials. The α+β-type titanium alloy, such as Ti6Al4V, has been most widely used as an implant material for artificial hip joints...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-chromium-molybdenum alloy: ASTM F 75-82, ISO 5832/IV (1978) Wrought cobalt-base alloys: ASTM F 90-82, ASTM F 562-84, ISO/DIS 5832/6, ASTM F 563-83, ISO/DIS 5832/8 Certain applications—for example, in the skull—involve use of tantalum and niobium, both of which have high corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (cast cobalt-base superalloy) Introduction The gas turbine is a versatile source of shaft or propulsion power in a growing number of applications. It can be used in several modes in critical industries, such as power generation, oil and gas, process plants, aviation, as well as smaller related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The first-stage nozzles of a high-pressure turbine section of an industrial gas turbine exhibited leading and trailing-edge deterioration. The nozzles were made of X-40, a cobalt-base alloy, and were aluminide coated. Failure analysis determined that the deterioration was the result...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...%), cobalt (2%), chromium (0.35%), boron (0.25%), and iron (0.05%) were present. The remaining 90% of the material analyzed was nonmetallic. Conclusions It was concluded that the marking electrolyte used for labeling was trapped between the 6061-T6 tubing and the ferrule. This fostered intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0091757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A kiln, 7.6 m (25 ft) long with a 1 m (3 ft) internal diameter and a 6.3 mm (0.25 in.) wall thickness, is used to regenerate spent charcoal returned by water utilities. This charcoal contains up to 0.57% S and 2.04% Cl. The kiln is made of Inconel 601 (N06601) welded using Inconel 617...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... are not used in permanent implants, such as hip or knee joint prostheses, because their corrosion resistance is inadequate; the cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys of ASTM F 75 are used instead. Selected References Selected References • Pohler O.E.M. , Failures of Metallic Orthopedic Implants...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 1150 2100 4 405, 410 705 1300 4 416 675 1245 4 420 620 1150 4 430 815 1500 4 440 760 1400 4 442 980 1795 4 446 1095 2005 4 Superalloys N-155 iron-base superalloy 1040 1900 1 S-816 cobalt-base superalloy 980 1800 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the scale on the “rock candy” fracture surface was chipped off and ground into a powder. This was used to obtain a Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern using cobalt radiation. The results, together with the patterns for FeO, Fe 3 O 4 , Fe 2 O 3 and Cu 2 O taken from the ASTM powder pattern file, are shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in these devices, the three common metal alloys used are titanium, cobalt-chromium, and stainless steel. Other components may also be made from different materials, such as ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (in the case of the articulating surface within artificial knees or artificial disks) or ceramic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... were chosen for the experiment. The alloys contained differing amounts of the elements nickel, chromium, iron, cobalt, tungsten, and silicon. The chemical analysis of the samples is shown in Table 4 . Chemical analysis of the alloys used in the experiment. Complete composition of UCX not provided...