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upset butt welds

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by the use of sidecutters ( Fig. 1a ). Fig. 1 Wire-end preparation for upset butt welding. The preparation was changed from chisel end (a) to square end (b) to eliminate test failures in welded zinc-coated AISI 1080 or 1055 steel wire. Investigation Tests of wire and weld properties gave...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Wire-end preparation for upset butt welding. The preparation was changed from chisel end (a) to square end (b) to eliminate test failures in welded zinc-coated AISI 1080 or 1055 steel wire. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... welding processes. The article also describes failure origins in other welding processes, such as electroslag welds, electrogas welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, flash welds, electron and laser beam weld, and high-frequency induction welds. arc welding brittle fracture electrogas welds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., etc., at the time of the upset, i.e. the pressing together of the ends of the links to complete the welding. It was evident from the examination that the service failures were due to the use of chain that was initially defective. Butt joints Chains Weld defects Welded mild steel Joining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... being discolored, indicative of a preexisting crack of the fatigue type, whilst the remaining portion was brightly crystalline, resulting from brittle fracture at the time of the mishap. In the second example, the fracture took place at a similar location adjacent to one of the butt welds situated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of rolled and welded COR-TEN steel plate butt welded together on site. The pipe sustained local buckling and cracking, then fractured during the first five months of operation. Failure was due to low cycle fatigue and fast fracture caused by differential thermal expansion stresses. Thermal lag between...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-submerged arc welds, electric-resistance welds, furnace butt welds, flash welds, and lap welds. Currently, only double-submerged arc welds and electric-resistance welds are used. The following are brief descriptions of the welding processes and common causes of failures. Double-Submerged Arc Welds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and dissolved hydrogen ( Ref 13 , 14 ). The stress may arise from restraint by other components of a weldment or from the thermal stresses created by welding in a butt, groove, or T-joint. The process of HAZ cracking in steels ( Ref 15 ) is usually described as: Hydrogen is introduced into the hot weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Electric resistance weld flaws Flash weld flaws Furnace butt weld flaws Hook cracks Cold welds Incomplete fusion Stitching Inclusions Shielded metal arc welding flaws Gas metal arc welding flaws Submerged arc welding flaws Misalignment Porosity Incomplete fusion Incomplete...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the intergranular cracks. The pipe surfaces were found to contain spatters of the zinc-rich primer, and when welding was performed through spattered regions, LMIE cracks formed adjacent to the weld passes. Stainless Steel and Copper In Ref 24 , heat-affected zone cracking at butt welds in thin sheets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Reference 24 reports HAZ cracking at butt welds in thin sheets of type 304L stainless steel when the weld area had been contaminated with copper particles. This reference also discusses cracking at tube-to-sheet welds due to copper contamination from adjacent tooling. The cracks were demonstrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... reviews fatigue assessment methods incorporated in international design and post construction codes and standards, with special emphasis on evaluating welds. Specifically, the stress-life approach, the strain-life approach, and the fracture mechanics (crack growth) approach are described. An overview...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ever causing failure. Figure 2 shows a poorly made weld with incomplete fusion amounting to more than half the tube wall thickness, yet this weld gave more than 27 years of service without failure. Nevertheless, fabrication and repair procedures should be aimed at producing defect-free systems...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a hydrostatic test because it had cracked in the weld. Analysis showed that the cap had a carbon content of 0.56%, whereas a maximum carbon content of 0.30% was specified. The excessive carbon content had resulted in a brittle HAZ. It was found that construction personnel had substituted ASTM A53 type F butt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a hydrostatic test because it had cracked in the weld. Analysis showed that the cap had a carbon content of 0.56%, whereas a maximum carbon content of 0.30% was specified. The excessive carbon content had resulted in a brittle HAZ. It was found that construction personnel had substituted ASTM A53 type F butt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to overheating, creep, graphitization, and situations having dissimilar-metal welds are generally characterized as sudden tube rupture or stress-rupture failures. An upset in any component of the heat-flow path across the tube during the course of boiler operation can disturb the heat balance, amounting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 1 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 1 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric resistance welded tube Iron oxides alone are not protective above 550 °C (1020 °F) ( Ref 5 ). Chromium, aluminum, and/or silicon assist in forming scales, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... regeneration of MnO 2 ( Ref 38 , 42 , 43 ): (Eq 7) H 2 O + ½ O 2 + Mn 2 + → MnO 2 + 2H + Manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) have been implicated in the corrosion of 304L stainless steel welds ( Ref 44 ). The pitting of stainless steel in natural waters has been linked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of background data on the manufacturing and fabricating history of a component should begin with obtaining specifications and drawings and should encompass all the design aspects of the failed part as well as all manufacturing and fabrication details—machining, welding, heat treating, coating, quality-control...