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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abbreviations and Symbols a crack length ac critical crack length at.% atomic percent A area; ratio of the alternating stress amplitude to the mean stress A cross-sectional area of weld A angstrom Accm in hypereutectoid steel, temperature at which cementite completes solution in austenite Ac1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., distributor, supplier, and retailer, can be held liable in such lawsuits. In the United States, manufacturers have a legal duty to produce products that are free from defects known to them and are safe for intended use and any reasonably foreseeable misuse. There are three types of defects that can incur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for shear testing and often-used ratios Table 1 Machine parameters and their corresponding fundamental rheological parameters for shear testing and often-used ratios Machine parameter Corresponding rheological parameter Symbol Units Velocity, angular velocity Shear rate γ ˙ 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for magnetic inspection of stiffener plates. MT Inspection Summary Table 1 MT Inspection Summary Field Welds (b) Line Column Girder Face Plate Side Plate No. from El.140 ft. Unit No. MT Result Effective Throat (in.) Rejectable Remarks A 6 S E 4 1 RI 5 16 yes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Element (symbol) Actual % (by weight) Specified range Carbon (C) 0.43 0.37–0.43 Manganese (Mn) 0.57* 0.35–0.55 Phosphorus (P) 0.007 0.010 max Sulfur (S) 0.014 0.025 max Silicon (Si) 0.17 0.15–0.30 Aluminum (A1) 0.0015 Not specified Chromium (Cr) 1.32 1.15–1.40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of materials (inorganic glasses and metals) clarifies the fact that plastics are prone to the development of thermal stresses. Thermal Expansion Thermal expansion can be defined in several ways ( Ref 5 ): Specific thermal expansivity, in which e = ∂ v /∂ T ) p in units of cm 3 /g · °C Volume...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Definitions Stress Definition A simple definition of stress is as a force per unit area. In a geometry that has a uniform stress distribution, such as a bar in simple tension, a force, F , applied along the axis of the bar that has area, A , has uniform stress, σ, where: (Eq 1) σ = F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or discontinuities. This is briefly discussed in the section “Fracture Mechanics” in this article. Definitions Stress Definition A simple definition of stress is as a force per unit area. In a geometry that has a uniform stress distribution, such as a bar in simple tension, a force, F , applied along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Standards commissioned a study to determine the direct and indirect cost of fracture in the United States. It was estimated that $120 billion are spent annually to cover direct costs and costs associated with fracture-related accidents ( Ref 1 ). The estimates took into account the necessity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the direct and indirect cost of fracture in the United States. In 1982, it was estimated that $120 billion was spent annually to cover direct costs and costs associated with fracture-related accidents ( Ref 1 ). In 2004, the costs to the U.S. economy were approximately $232 billion per year. The estimates...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-induced damage in a part will increase in time. For the case of fatigue, the measure of damage is crack size. However, the same concepts would apply to high-temperature creep, corrosion, wear, or some other degradation mechanism. The symbol D will be used in this and some subsequent figures to denote...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of a compressor system, a noise developed that was unacceptable. During the investigation of the noise it was found that one of the helical compressor springs was fractured. The failure occurred at 69K cycles, far short of the test goal of 500K. Subsequent to the first failure, all nine of the original units...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Calculation of capacitance—micrometer electrodes Parallel capacitance Definitions of symbols C p = C ′ − C r + C vr C ′ is the calibration capacitance of the micrometer electrodes at the spacing to which the electrodes are reset C vr is the vacuum capacitance for the area...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., ( Ref 22 ) contains a chapter on addressing uncertainty in machine design. Other examples are given in ref 23 . Nuclear engineering has a long and rich history in applying probabilistic methods for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear vessels. The United States Navy has been actively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ( Ref 11 ) and used for rubber by Rivlin and Thomas ( Ref 12 ), who designed a parameter to describe the total work needed to create a surface unit area (tearing energy, in the case of rubber). Attempts to apply this approach were made successfully by several researchers in the following years ( Ref 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in a stepwise manner as the epoxy and amine groups continue to react. Epoxy, polyurethanes, cyanate esters, and bismaleimides are examples of thermoset networks formed by step-growth polymerization. Chain Polymerization In chain polymerization, the repeating units add one at a time to the active site...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Structure type Rolling-element type Abbreviation Standard(s) Symbols, measuring tools, and techniques Radial Balls DGBB ISO 492 ISO 1132-2:2001 Cylinder rollers CRB Tapered rollers TRB Spherical rollers SRB Axial Balls ATBB ISO 199 Cylinder rollers ATRB Others...