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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., mixed composites (SFRP and particulate-filled), unidirectional FRP composites, and fabric reinforced composites. Friction and wear performance of the composites, correlation of performance with various materials properties, and studies on wear-of failure mechanisms by scanning electron microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... testing Table 1 Commonly used tests for mechanical testing Test Property measured Limitations Strength/ductility testing Unidirectional tension Ultimate tensile strength Yield strength Proportional limit (curve) Ductility: percent reduction in area and percent elongation May...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... near the fracture. (c) Plan view of fracture surface showing symmetrical rotating-bending fatigue fracture with ratchet marks and final overload section in the center Fig. 23 Pushrod that fractured in bending fatigue after being fabricated by inertia welding. (a) Configuration and dimensions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear of metal parts are also discussed. The article concludes with a discussion on the influence of metallurgical factors and fabrication practices on the fatigue properties of materials, as well as the effects of surface coatings. abrasive wear adhesive wear axial fatigue bending fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., providing it a longitudinal movement, moving the piston and, consequently, the propeller blades. The design and fabrication procedures for both shaft and pipe shall be carefully considered, as these elements are subjected stresses due to cyclic bending combined with steady torsion [ 6 ]. Consequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... itself, including all discontinuities, anisotropies, and inhomogeneities present. Local surface imperfections, such as scratches, mars, burrs, and other fabrication flaws, are the most obvious flaws at which fatigue cracks start. Surface and subsurface material discontinuities in critical locations also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... of corrosion assisted fracture. Additionally, some components were found to contain fabrication/processing defects that contributed to premature failure. The implant of nonbiocompatible materials results in immeasurable damage to patients as well as losses for the public investment. It is proposed that local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., spinal rods, vertebral implants, and intramedullar nails fabricated from stainless steel and titanium alloy. The most common causes of the implant failures evaluated were stress-corrosion fatigue and wear. The other contributing factors for the implant failures were production errors, existence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by fretting, failure by corrosion, failure by plastic flow, failure by rolling-contact fatigue, and failure by damage. The article discusses the effects of fabrication practices, heat treatment and hardness of bearing components, and lubrication of rolling-element bearings with a few examples. corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of fatigue crack initiation are favored there. Manufacturing and fabrication processes (e.g., welding and machining) can introduce surface irregularities or discontinuities that act as points of stress concentration, facilitating fatigue crack initiation. In many common situations, such as uniaxial...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Shafts The shafts within a gear train, as well as the shank of a pinion that constitutes a shaft in function, are very important to load-carrying capacity and load distribution. They are continually exposed to torsional loads, both unidirectional and reversing. The less obvious stressed condition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue failure of boron-containing alloy steel helical spring. Fatigue initiated at an abraded area marked by arrows. The material in compression coil springs is subjected to unidirectional torsion, so fatigue propagates on a single helical surface. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 18 This broken 30 mm...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of material per unit of sliding distance per unit of applied normal load), the curves are of the form shown in Fig. 13 . The curves are sigmoidal, with the specific wear rate becoming constant at amplitudes >100 μm (>0.004 in.) (that is, identical with unidirectional sliding or reciprocating sliding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Nature of load (cyclic/steady, unidirectional/reversing) Speed Lubricants and lubrication system characteristics Lubricant cleanliness and filtration Operating temperatures Counterface (shaft) material and finish Alignment It is necessary to understand the bearing geometry (shapes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and fractured remnant of the crankshaft dowel. The dowel fracture surface was consistent with unidirectional bending fatigue; examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed fatigue striations, indicative of high-cycle fatigue. The fracture origin was located near the outer diameter of the crankshaft...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of background data on the manufacturing and fabricating history of a component should begin with obtaining specifications and drawings and should encompass all the design aspects of the failed part as well as all manufacturing and fabrication details—machining, welding, heat treating, coating, quality-control...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... strength (partial coherency) between these particles and the matrix (i.e., carbide particles in a low-carbon steel). As a material is subjected to a load, debonding occurs in directions of maximum strain in the matrix, with the more weakly bonded materials debonding first. For unidirectional loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... bonded materials debonding first. For unidirectional loading, debonding occurs at the interface generally normal to the applied load ( Fig. 9a , b ). An example is shown in Fig. 10 . When the applied loading creates a tensile-hydrostatic stress (often poorly referred to as a “triaxial” stress-state...