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uncertainty reduction

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... A was joined to the C-D run through a forged reduction socket (see Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Construction of the cross-tee, showing the 2-in. Schedule 80 pipe (A), joined to the 3-in. Schedule 80 pipe (C-D) by a reduction socket (E). The remaining arm of the cross (B) was a flanged nipple welded to the 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Electrochemical Testing Elemental Analysis and X-Ray Diffraction The constant extension rate tests showed that the breech chamber steel (4340) is susceptible to SCC in a paste made from the residues removed from used chambers. The most severe reduction in ductility occurred at a nominal strain rate of 1.4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a flaw for a material of limited fracture toughness, or a fabrication configuration with an excessively sharp forming bend, with the resulting high residual stresses causing a reduction in the fatigue life. For the example of the excessively tight cold-formed bend radius described previously...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for a material of limited fracture toughness, or a fabrication configuration with an excessively sharp forming bend, with the resulting high residual stresses causing a reduction in the fatigue life. For the example of the excessively tight cold-formed bend radius just described, an application-life diagram...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... It is difficult to establish the “fatigue damage baseline” for the components in an older plant because fatigue damage accumulates at different rates in the various components. A major factor that contributes to the uncertainty fatigue damage is the uncertainty in the stress intensity factor. Components exposed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... elongation and reduction in wall area or cross section. Such failures often are characterized as having knife-edge fracture surfaces, in the case of tubes. Figure 1(a) ( Ref 4 ) illustrates the elongation and deformation normally encountered with short-term overheating. For example, in tubes, wall thinning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or cracking of the structural component. If the mechanical defect is located at a high-stress location, the reduction in life can be significant and possibly catastrophic. For example, Fig. 6 shows damage at a fastener hole in a wing skin spar mechanically induced during the drilling of the hole...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Time to rupture, h Total elongation in 38 mm (1.5 in.), % Reduction in area, % 1.25Cr-0.5Mo low-alloy steel at 540 °C (1000°F) 8.7 19.6 41 47.0 12.1 29 259.4 14.0 20 660.6 10.5 13 2162.0 17.6 32 Type 316 stainless steel at 705 °C (1300 °F) 3.1 26.6 26 3.7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../1071181319631255 15. Horinov S. , Shaymardanov K. , and Tadjiyev Z. , Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation in FaroArm-Machine Using the Bootstrap Method , J. Multimed. Inf. Syst. , Vol 2 ( No. 3 ), 2015 , p 255 – 262 16. Woodward S.D. , Dury M.R. , Brown S.B...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... steel Table 4 Typical elevated-temperature ductility of a 1.25Cr-0.5Mo low-alloy steel and type 316 stainless steel Time to rupture, h Total elongation in 40 mm (1.5 in.), % Reduction in area, % 1.25Cr-0.5Mo low-alloy steel at 540 °C (1000 °F) 8.7 19.6 41 47.0 12.1 29...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reduction in throttle flow is due to reduced power requirements during some portions of service duty cycle. However, these fluctuations are shown to have negligible effect on the magnitude of the stresses. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 4 Effective temperature in a TMF cycle as a function of the maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as the aircraft we fly, are required to be maintained. Improper maintenance results in life reduction or complete breakdown. Sometimes it is intentional, such as skipping the overhaul of a machine in order to squeeze out a few more weeks of use. Other times it is unintentional, such as the case where the person...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and differences between the safe-life and damage-tolerance methodologies. The results of the safe-life approach are very dependent on the availability and applicability of S - N data. If, for the torque link bolt, the notch factor and R -ratio had been 2.3 and 0.2, respectively, uncertainty in the final result...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by escaping steam. The tube was a 64-mm (2 1 2 -in.) outside-diameter × 6.4-mm (0.250-in.) wall thickness boiler tube made of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel (ASME SA-213, grade T-11). Ruptures caused by rapid overheating exhibit an obvious reduction in wall thickness caused by yielding adjacent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... maintenance results in life reduction or complete breakdown. Sometimes it is intentional, such as skipping the overhaul of a machine in order to squeeze out a few more weeks of use. Other times it is unintentional, such as the case in which a person who believes that if a 50:50 ratio of radiator fluid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and others are detailed in Ref 4 and may be applied by the failure analyst if there is uncertainty as to whether the stresses known to be applied were sufficient to cause the distortion observed. The failed outer spring (at left, Fig. 6 ) had decreased in length to about the same free length...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... desired to maintain as high a clamp load as possible without introducing plastic deformation into either the fastener or the joint components. Failure analysis of bolted connections requires consideration of the initial clamp load as well as factors that may cause a reduction in the clamp load in service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2