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ultraviolet light absorbers

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., some precautions can be taken to at least reduce the number of unnecessary chromophores. This includes, for example, processing at lower temperatures and the use of inert gases such as nitrogen or argon to avoid thermal degradation during processing. Ultraviolet Absorbers: Pigments Pigments...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... degraded state. It is likely that as this degradation progressed further into the part wall, cracks began to form, acting as initiation sites for fatigue. The degradation of the bracket surface material likely resulted from a combination of weathering and thermal and ultraviolet light exposures over time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to Laboratory Light Sources—Part 3: Fluorescent UV Lamps ,” International Organization for Standardization , 2016 28. ASTM G154 , “ Standard Practice for Operating Fluorescent Ultraviolet (UV) Lamp Apparatus for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials ,” ASTM International , 2016 29. Francis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Transmission is one of the most obvious characteristics of a transparent plastic. It is measured using a spectrophotometer or a hazemeter in accordance with ASTM D 1003. This method uses a collimated light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector. Measurements are taken on a flat, dust-free test specimen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... induced in a polyoxymethylene specimen exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light in the laboratory for 1000 h. It should be noted, however, that some polymers are intrinsically more resistant to degradation than others. The following common polymers are ranked with respect to their relative resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials and resins. It explains how absorbed moisture affects a wide range of properties, including glass transition temperature, flexural and shear modulus,creep, stress relaxation, swelling, tensile and yield strength, and fatigue cracking. It provides relevant data on common polymers, resins, and fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in stress. The cloudy appearance is the result of a localized change in the polymer refractive index. Thus, transmitted light is scattered. Microvoid clusters of a dimension equal to or greater than the wavelength of light are thought to be the primary cause of stress whitening. The microvoids can be caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of short ultraviolet wavelengths absorbed by oxygen ( Ref 1 ). Fig. 1 Schematic of spark emission spectroscopy system. Source: Ref 1 Spark-emission OES is a mature analytical technique that is regularly used for analysis of ferrous and nonferrous materials. Sample preparation and analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that discontinuities can be detected visually under ultraviolet light. This method reveals surface cracks that are not visible to the naked eye. Most commercial powders for MPI have various pigments, typically gray or red, to highlight resulting visible indications. For both the dry and wet magnetic-particle test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... reducing its resistance to another, analogous to biological systems. For example, the predominant factors in climatic exposure are moisture, temperature, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The severity of these factors depends on geographical location and must be considered when designing with polymeric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., MWD Weight-average molecular weight, M ¯¯¯¯w … Polymer MWD with soluble polymers … Low-angle light scattering, MWD for homopolymers, interactions polymer/solvent M ¯¯¯¯w M ¯¯¯¯w … Osmometry, membrane Number-average molecular weight, M ¯¯¯¯n … M ¯¯¯¯n=103 to 106 Osmometry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...- and minimum-use temperature to avoid failure. Ultraviolet, Infrared, X-Ray, Gamma, and Electron Beam Radiation Polymers are long-chain molecules that are connected by covalent bonds. These bonds are much weaker than ionic bonds typical for inorganic salts, making them susceptible to cleavage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... properties such as T m and mechanical properties such as Young’s modulus ( E ). Carbon–carbon single bonds are fairly strong, and they are stable to ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Carbon–carbon double and triple bonds are shorter and stronger, but they are subject to attack by atmospheric oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... critical part dimensions ( Fig. 16 ). After the puller, there can be a myriad of additional equipment used (corona treatment, printing units, ultraviolet cross linking) before the end of the webline culminates with a cutting unit. The length of the profile is fixed by connecting the puller to the cutter...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... under ultraviolet light. This method reveals surface cracks that are not visible to the naked eye. Liquid-Penetrant Inspection Liquid-penetrant inspection is used to detect surface flaws in materials. It is used mainly, but not exclusively, with nonmagnetic materials, on which magnetic-particle...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tube produced by erosion-corrosion. The tube surface is clean, the attack having occurred due to brine flowing through it at 70 °C (158 °F) with turbulent flow and an excessive level of dissolved oxygen. Oblique lighting of fracture surfaces for macroscopic examination can be used to advantage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and an excessive level of dissolved oxygen. Oblique lighting of fracture surfaces for macroscopic examination can be used to advantage to display surface topography. This often involves arranging lights until the desired effect is shown in an exaggerated manner. The lighting from photoflood or similar lamps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., ultraviolet absorbers, and antioxidants. The basic structure of polymers influences the properties of both polymers and the plastics made from them. An understanding of this basic structure permits the user to understand which polymers may be acceptable for a certain application and which may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and aesthetics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions. It is critical to find a balance between antiscratch properties that do not compromise physical and mechanical properties, such as odor, fogging, surface finish, ultraviolet resistance, color, impact resistance, and so on. Polymers are more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... light source allows differential photocalorimetry experiments to be conducted on ultraviolet-curable thermosets. Thermomechanical Analysis Thermomechanical analysis measures the change in sample dimension under a controlled load as the sample is heated. It is the preferred method for measuring...