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types of corrosion

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Four typical pit types found on slugs: (a) shallow corrosion penetration of core, (b) deeper penetration, (c) vertical penetration of core, (d) bubble formed under aluminum cladding. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 1 Schematic of heat-exchanger system, showing the areas of various types of corrosive attack on the inside surfaces of the tubes Fig. 2 Typical localized corrosion on inside surface of a tube along the edges of the weld seam. 3.04× Fig. 3 Typical section through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... tip fractured due to thermomechanical fatigue in its degraded state. Recommendations included special chromium or silicon-rich coating to minimize corrosion in gas turbines operating in a marine environment with operating temperatures in the range of type 2 corrosion (650 to 750 deg C, or 1200 to 1380...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... by oxygen concentration cells and oxygen-pitting related corrosion. Both types of corrosion are due to the poor quality of the water and the lack of corrosion control in the water system. Water chemistry Water heaters Water pipelines Water treatment ASTM A106 UNS K03006 Crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examples. Fatigue fracture in threaded fasteners and fretting in bolted machine parts are also discussed. The article provides a description of the different types of corrosion, such as atmospheric corrosion and liquid-immersion corrosion, in threaded fasteners. It also provides information on stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... environmental effects, manufacturing discrepancies, improper use, or incorrect installation. Next, it describes fastener failure origins and fretting. Types of corrosion in threaded fasteners and their preventive measures are then covered. The performance of fasteners at elevated temperatures is addressed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract New type 321 corrosion-resistant steel heat shields were cracking during welding operations. A failure analysis was performed. The cause was found to be chloride induced stress-corrosion cracking. Packaging was suspected and confirmed to be the cause of the chloride contamination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a description of heat-transfer surface area, discussing the design of the tubular heat exchanger. Next, the article discusses the processes involved in the examination of failed parts. Finally, it describes the most important types of corrosion, including uniform, galvanic, pitting, stress, and erosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Three separate corrosion mechanisms were involved in the failure of an AISI type 304 stainless steel pipe elbow. The major cracks, including the one that penetrated the wall, tend to be wide-mouthed, tapering to a blunt tip, with corrosion products filling much of the crack space...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... appears to be the result of a combination of pitting and stress corrosion, most likely due to chlorides. The factory was recommended to use molybdenum-alloyed steels (type 18/10 or 18/12) which are more resistant to local disruption of passivating films and pitting than molybdenum-free types such as 18/8...
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 1 Schematic of heat-exchanger system, showing the areas of various types of corrosive attack on the inside surfaces of the tubes More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... in the formation of microcracks. A second type of corrosive action also occurred and resulted in the formation of nodule-type oxides of chromium. The nodules formed at regular intervals in the stem and the underhead region. The material adjacent to the oxides was not depleted of chromium, indicating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... equipment Chlorides Piping 316 UNS S31600 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A 680,000 kg (750 ton) per day ammonia unit was shut down following fire near the outlet of the waste heat exchanger. The fire had resulted from leakage of ammonia from the type 316 stainless steel outlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Heavy pitting corrosion on type 304 stainless steel bone screw was studied. A screw head that exhibited heavy pitting corrosion attack was observed. Deep tunnels that penetrated the screw head and followed the inclusion lines were revealed. The screw was inserted in a plate made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and bending of tubing during installation should be avoided to reduce residual stress. Chlorides Steam condensate Tubing 316 UNS S31600 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A steam-condensate line made of type 316 stainless steel tubing that measured 19 mm (0.75 in.) outside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Although field corrosion tests had indicated that type 316L stainless steel would be a suitable material for neutralization tanks, the vessels suffered severe corrosion when placed in service. Welded coupons of type 316L had been tested along with similar Alloy 20Cb® (UNS NO8020...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... may have contributed. Leakage Storage vessels Welded joints 18-8 Stress-corrosion cracking A welded vessel made of acid resistant steel of the 18/8 type used in the derusting of motor vehicle parts started to leak after a long period due to the formation of cracks. The vessel was heated...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Minor cracking of stress corrosion type. (×100). More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Pitting and stress corrosion in type 316 stainless steel evaporator tubes. (a) Rust-stained and pitted area near the top of the evaporator tube. Not clear in the photograph, but visually discernible, are myriads of fine, irregular cracks. (b) Same area shown in (a) but after dye More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Heavy pitting corrosion on type 304 stainless steel bone screw. (a) Longitudinal section through head of bone screw showing corrosion tunnels. (b) Etched longitudinal section showing the many primary inclusion lines and corrosion tunnels that follow the inclusions. (c) SEM overview More