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types of corrosion

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 37 Various types of intergranular corrosion. (a) Interdendritic corrosion in a cast structure. (b) Interfragmentary corrosion in a wrought, unrecrystallized structure. (c) Intergranular corrosion in a recrystallized wrought structure. All etched with Keller's reagent. 500× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 37 Various types of intergranular corrosion. (a) Interdendritic corrosion in a cast structure. (b) Interfragmentary corrosion in a wrought, unrecrystallized structure. (c) Intergranular corrosion in a recrystallized wrought structure. All etched with Keller’s reagent. Original More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Four typical pit types found on slugs: (a) shallow corrosion penetration of core, (b) deeper penetration, (c) vertical penetration of core, (d) bubble formed under aluminum cladding. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Although field corrosion tests had indicated that type 316L stainless steel would be a suitable material for neutralization tanks, the vessels suffered severe corrosion when placed in service. Welded coupons of type 316L had been tested along with similar Alloy 20Cb® (UNS NO8020...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and bending of tubing during installation should be avoided to reduce residual stress. Chlorides Steam condensate Tubing 316 UNS S31600 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A steam-condensate line made of type 316 stainless steel tubing that measured 19 mm (0.75 in.) outside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Heavy pitting corrosion on type 304 stainless steel bone screw was studied. A screw head that exhibited heavy pitting corrosion attack was observed. Deep tunnels that penetrated the screw head and followed the inclusion lines were revealed. The screw was inserted in a plate made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... equipment Chlorides Piping 316 UNS S31600 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A 680,000 kg (750 ton) per day ammonia unit was shut down following fire near the outlet of the waste heat exchanger. The fire had resulted from leakage of ammonia from the type 316 stainless steel outlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... a tension band fixation containing a cerclage wire, two screws, and washers beneath the screw heads. See also Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 Intercrystalline corrosion of a type 304 stainless steel cerclage wire. (a) Broken cerclage wire. (b) Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis under the scanning electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was to select a grade of spring steel that would be more corrosion resistant than 302 stainless. Glass bead peening would probably have been beneficial too, but the springs were too small for this process. Type 304 stainless steel springs were tried, but these also failed, albeit after two or three times longer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... be expected that chromium and manganese would also be present if crevice or galvanic action was solely responsible for the corrosion. This fact, coupled with the reddish-brown slime deposit in the pit, points to the presence of an iron-type ion-concentrating bacteria. Corrosion due to this type of bacteria...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 38 Corrosion pits and stress-corrosion cracking in type 316 stainless steel evaporator tubes. (a) View of the rust-stained and pitted area near the top of the evaporator tube. A myriad of fine, irregular cracks is discernible visually, although it is not clear in the photograph. (b) View More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 22 Schematic diagram of shipboard engine corrosion rates of type I and type II hot corrosion versus temperature in a marine environment compared with the Arrhenius oxidation rate versus temperature. LTHC, low-temperature hot corrosion; HTHC, high-temperature hot corrosion. Courtesy of U.S More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... is called hot corrosion. Blades and vanes located in the hot gas path of a turbine are subject to hot corrosion. A layer-type corrosion (type II), characterized by an uneven scale/metal interface and the absence of subscale sulfides, occurs from 650 to 705 °C (1200 to 1300 °F). Above 760 °C (1400 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... Recommendations included changing the valve material to type 304 stainless steel. Nonmetallic inclusions Sulfides Valves Vending machines 303 UNS S30300 Intergranular corrosion After about two years in service, a valve in contact with a carbonated soft drink in a vending machine occasionally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel; the flange from type 321, and the ring gasket from 347. Examination revealed that the failure occurred by transgranular stress-corrosion cracking, initiated by the presence of polythionic acid. Detailed metallurgical investigation was subsequently conducted to identify what may have caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., was recommended to prevent chloride buildup. Painting of the steel surface with an epoxy-phenolic or epoxy-coal tar was also suggested. Chemical processing industry Columns (process) Marine environments 316 UNS S31600 Stress-corrosion cracking Pitting corrosion Background A type 316 stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Fretting and fretting corrosion at the contact area between the screw hole of a type 316LR stainless steel bone plate and the corresponding screw head was studied. The attack on the 316LR stainless steel was only shallow. Mechanical grinding and polishing structures were exhibited...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Intercrystalline corrosion of a type 304 stainless steel cerclage wire. (a) Broken cerclage wire. (b) Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis under the scanning electron microscope. Lower spectrum: reference material type 316L screw material. Upper spectrum: type 304 steel with less nickel More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 29 Heavy pitting corrosion on type 304 stainless steel bone screw. (a) Longitudinal section through head of bone screw showing corrosion tunnels. (b) Etched longitudinal section showing the many primary inclusion lines and corrosion tunnels that follow the inclusions. (c) SEM overview More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 22 A single-origin corrosion-fatigue crack in type 403 stainless steel exposed to steam showing rubbed origin (arrow) and beach marks. Scanning electron fractograph (secondary electron image). 60× More