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twinning-induced plasticity steels

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Transgranular crack propagation is caused by competing mechanisms of ductile crack nucleation, growth by slip deformation mechanism, and brittle cracking by cleavage. (As described later in this article, twinning is a TG mechanism of plastic deformation. Deformation twinning provides a limited amount of ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in this article, twinning is a transgranular mechanism of plastic deformation. Deformation twinning provides a limited amount of ductile deformation but also provides an alternative for initiation of cleavage cracks. What can result from twinning deformation is cleavage crack nucleation at the intersection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for the onset of twinning deformation in polycrystalline material. A critical resolved shear-stress law for the onset of plastic deformation by slip is still accepted in both single crystals and polycrystalline material. Background Extensive experimental work in Germany and England in the early part...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... been accepted for the onset of twinning deformation in polycrystalline material. A critical resolved shear stress law for the onset of plastic deformation by slip is still accepted in both single crystals and polycrystalline material. Background Extensive experimental work in Germany and England...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at a hole with a wall surface of untempered martensite. Furthermore, it was concluded that a worn or dull drill bit caused too much plastic deformation and friction during holemaking in the AISI 4340 alloy steel. The high heat from the deformation and the friction transformed the subsurface microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in CA-6NM ( Fig. 2b ), and at grain and twin boundaries in type 304 stainless steel ( Fig. 3b ). Fracture surfaces thus exposed may be striated, as in Fig. 4 . Material loss then spreads over the entire region subject to cavitation collapse, resulting in extremely roughened surfaces with completely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and covered with oxide flakes, but no other flaws relevant to the failure were observed. The investigation results suggest that the root cause of failure was a forging lap that occurred during manufacturing. Precracks induced by the forging defect and the influence of preload stress (due to bolt torque...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the cracks. An interesting feature observed in the SEM micrographs was the presence of Cr-carbides at slip bands and twin boundaries, as shown in Fig. 6(c) and (d) , respectively. Large number of slip bands is indicative of occurrence of plastic deformation. The SEM–EDS analysis results also confirmed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... forming processes will necessarily result in unavoidable MVC, concentrated in regions of highest plastic deformation. Forming-induced microvoids can act as subsequent fracture initiation sites, which may be of particular importance with regard to fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue cracking also requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... strain-controlled damage in the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) area (e.g., from approximately 10 2 to 10 4 cycles). The lifetime determination in the LCF range is based on the local strain concept, in which the load-induced elastic/plastic stress-strain cycles in the hot spot of the component must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ones are smoothed out plastically. The critical junction size model ( Ref 24 ) predicts the transition between two adhesive wear mechanisms: gradual plastic shearing versus fracture-induced particle formation. As two asperities approach, a strong adhesive bond is established between them, leading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The peak elastic stress in Fig. 8 is consistently above the yield strength of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel at the operating temperatures and the elastic stress range exceeds twice the cyclic yield strength. Therefore, the material in the vicinity of the steam passageway bores undergoes plastic deformation during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... site for crack nucleation. Nucleation at a grain boundary appears to be purely a geometrical effect related to plastic incompatibility, whereas nucleation at a twin boundary is associated with active slip on crystallographic planes immediately adjacent and parallel to the twin boundary. The above...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and then measuring to determine the true shrink factor prior to a final adjustment of the mold. It can be very costly if the shrinkage is incorrectly predicted and some steel must be added back into the mold; this is the reason why the method of leaving the mold steel-safe is often employed. The plasticizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a hardened bearing or gear steel. However, these steels contain inhomogeneities in the form of nonmetallic inclusions (e.g., oxides, sulfides, etc.). These act as stress concentrations, which increase the local stress high enough that the steel can plastically deform during the time when the material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... strength. Prevention of creep-induced fracture thus involves the consideration of both material strength and damage tolerance, much as in static design. The chromium-molybdenum steels, stainless steels, and Cr-Mo-V steels, which are commonly used in high-temperature service, are considered to be creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to smooth-bar stress-rupture strength. Thus, prevention of creep-induced fracture involves the consideration of both material strength and damage tolerance, much as in static design. The chromium-molybdenum steels, stainless steels, and Cr-Mo-V steels, which are commonly used in high-temperature service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... properties of samples from the steel flange Table 3 Average mechanical properties of samples from the steel flange Yield strength, MPa Tensile strength, MPa Elongation (50 mm), % Average 335 ± 61 479 ± 43 11.3 ± 1.2 Fig. 9 Oxidized fracture surface of at region A, showing also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in fracture, severe room-temperature forming processes result in unavoidable MVC concentrated in regions of highest plastic deformation. Forming-induced microvoids can serve as subsequent fracture-initiation sites, which may be of particular importance with regard to fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at grain boundaries, particularly at elevated temperature or under conditions that cause grain-boundary embrittlement, and at twin boundaries. Fig. 2 Close-up view of ratchet marks between distinct surface origin sites in an 18.4 cm (7.25 in.) low-alloy steel shaft that failed in rotating-bending...