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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Two aircraft-engine tailpipes of 19-9 DL stainless steel (AISI type 651) developed cracks along longitudinal gas tungsten arc butt welds after being in service for more than 1000 h. Binocular-microscope examination of the cracks in both tailpipes revealed granular, brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Parts of 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel that had been forged at about 815 deg C (1500 deg F) were gas tungsten arc welded. During postweld inspection, cracks were found in the HAZs of the welds. Welding had been done using a copper fixture that contacted the steel in the area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 1984 Chevrolet Blazer was being pushed by three youths after it ran out of gas when it was hit from behind by a 1979 Mercury Cougar. One of the youths was crushed between the two vehicles and killed. Optical microscopy was used to examine the tungsten filaments from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract This case study describes the failure analysis of a steel nozzle in which cracking was observed after a circumferential welding process. The nozzle assembly was made from low-carbon CrMoV alloy steel that was subsequently single-pass butt welded using gas tungsten arc welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... rate on the order of 1 x 10−7 cu cm/s (6 x 10−8 cu in./s). Optical metallography revealed numerous pits and cracks on the surfaces of the bellow convolutes, which had been welded to one another using an autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process. Microhardness measurements indicated that the bellows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract During routine quality control testing, small circuit breakers exhibited high contact resistance and, in some cases, insulation of the contacts by a surface film. The contacts were made of silver-refractory (tungsten or molybdenum) alloys. Infrared analysis revealed the film...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A welded elbow assembly (AISI type 321 stainless steel, with components joined with ER347 stainless steel filler metal by gas tungsten arc welding) was part of a hydraulic-pump pressure line for a jet aircraft. The other end of the tube was attached to a flexible metal hose...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A weld in a fuel-line tube broke after 159 h of engine testing. The 6.4-mm (0.25-in.) OD x 0.7-mm (0.028-in.) wall thickness tube and the end adapters were all of type 347 stainless steel. The butt joints between tube and end adapters were made by automated gas tungsten arc...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... contributed to the failure of the electrode. The source of the antimony was not identified but is believed to have originated from the feed material. Metallurgical evaluation also revealed that nickel had attacked the grain boundaries of the molybdenum/tungsten drain valve. This component did not fail...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A Ti-6Al-4V alloy pressure vessel failed during a proof-pressure test, fracturing along the center girth weld. The girth joints were welded with the automatic gas tungsten arc process utilizing an auxiliary trailing shield attached to the welding torch to provide inert-gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A welded ferritic stainless steel heat exchanger cracked prior to service. The welding filler metal was identified as an austenitic stainless steel and the joining method as gas tungsten arc welding. Investigation (visual inspection, SEM images, 5.9x images, and 8.9x/119x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of engineering materials, is presented. As an example, the materials and metallographic techniques employed in an actual on-site investigation of a gas tungsten-arc weldment joining two large diameter Ti-6Al-4V alloy cylinders are discussed in depth to illustrate what can be accomplished. Cylinders Field...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that is subsequently sealed by depositing a full-penetration, autogenous, gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW) ( Fig. 2 ). The GTAW closure-welding system was developed and qualified before being used for production packaging of plutonium-bearing materials. The closure welding system and qualification efforts are described...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of overaging from the welding heat. Additional support for the oil line was installed to reduce vibration and minimize fatigue of the elbow. Gas tungsten arc welding Overaging Penetration Pipe bends Repair welding 6061-T6 UNS A96061 Fatigue fracture Joining-related failures Several elbow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) gas pressure, and (c) using 270 Pa (2.0 torr) gas pressure Fig. 19 Comparison of (a) conventional tungsten-filament scanning electron microscope to (b) field-emission instrument. Samples imaged at 10,000× Fig. 20 Effect of accelerating voltage on imaging. Sample is gold-coated ZnS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... imaged in the uncoated state using a low-pressure microscope Fig. 18 Nonconductive material imaged using (a) conventional imaging, (b) low-pressure imaging with 20 Pa gas pressure, and (c) using 270 Pa gas pressure Fig. 19 Comparison of (a) conventional tungsten filament SEM to (b...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Aluminum alloy 5083-O was the specified seamless pipe composition, and the weld filler metal was 5183. The ASTM designation of the alloy piping is not known. Either the gas tungsten are or gas metal arc welding process was used to make the butt weld where the failure occurred. Specimen Selection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... are usually made from high carbon-high chromium varieties of D2 (1.25 wt% C, 12 wt% Cr) or D4 (2.25 wt% C, 12 wt% Cr) type cold-work tool steels ( Ref 4 ) or of tungsten carbide ( Ref 5 ), second-intermediate roll steel composition is leaner in carbon content for enhanced toughness. It has been reported ( Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fatigue fracture misalignment tungsten alloy steel fatigue cracking optical microscopy hardness T1 tungsten high-speed steel UNS T12001 Copper-based bearing alloys Background The ball bearing assembly consisted of an inner race, an outer race, a cage, and balls. This bearing supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and high-tungsten contents. Therefore, one can infer that there are mechanical and chemical differences between base and filler metal that can affect the degradation process of TBC. The elemental distributions across bond-coat/substrate interfaces are shown in Fig. 4(a) to (c) . During spallation...