1-20 of 317 Search Results for

tube forming

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 Cracked tube after second pass in flow forming More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Flow forming technology has emerged as a promising, economical metal forming technology due to its ability to provide high strength, high precision, thin walled tubes with excellent surface finish. This paper presents experimental observations of defects developed during flow forming...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Trimming and cutting of tensile specimen from fully formed tube More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Burst pressure tested flow formed tube More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Through and through sharp longitudinal crack in a flow formed tube More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Microcracks in flow formed tube More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 Flow formed tube with fish scales after final pass More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... The scale on the internal surface of carbon and low-alloy steel tubes such as T11 and T22 steels consists of FeO (wustite), Fe 2 O 3 (hematite), and Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite). In the presence of moisture or water in the form of condensate, there can also be formation of the compound Fe(OH) 2 (ferrous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-bend T2. Fig. 3 Close-up of the hole in tube 4T. Approximately 0.95×. Fig. 4 Microstructure of ring section removed from each 90° elbow that formed the U-bend sample in T2. The microstructure consists of pearlite in a ferrite matrix. The difference in grain size and pearlite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Caustic cracking is the term used to describe one of the forms in which stress-corrosion cracking manifests itself in carbon steels. In the present study, persistent leakage occurred after ten weeks of service from tube expansions in the steam and mud drum of a two-drum D type boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the tube wall, which appeared to have formed by pitting under the nodules, were revealed by visual examination. Steep sidewalls, which indicated a high rate of attack, were revealed by microscopic examination of a section through the pit which had penetrated the tube wall. The major constituent of reddish...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and it will be useful to consider first in detail the mechanism of magnetite formation. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) is one of the oxides of iron—it is black and magnetic in nature. Boiler water will react with the clean surface of a steel tube to form a layer of magnetite, which serves subsequently to confer corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as possible after being quenched from the solution temperature. The tubes should be stored in dry ice after the quench until bending can be done. The tubes should be aged immediately after being formed. Flattening and slow-bend tests should be specified to ensure that the connector tubes had satisfactory...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...-dispersive analysis of the deposits. It was interpreted by the hardness values (higher than typical for annealed copper tubing) that the tubes may not have been annealed after the U-bends were formed and thus the role of residual stresses in the crack was revealed. It was concluded that the tubes failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... thickness. Condenser tubes Dezincification Steam turbines 80Cu-20Zn 70Cu-30Zn Dealloying/selective leaching Dezincification is a particular form of corrosive attack which may occur in a variety of environments and to which some brasses are susceptible. It is favoured by waters having a high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Ikeda Y. , Nii K. , Microcrack generation and its healing in the oxide scale formed on Fe-Cr alloys . Oxid. Met . 12 , 487 ( 1978 ) 10.1007/BF00603806 13. Jones D.R.H. , Creep failures of overheated boiler, superheater and reheater tubes . Eng. Fail. Anal . 11 ( 6 ), 873...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) indicated significant segregation of sulfur and chlorine along the grain boundaries. Failure was attributed to hypochlorous-acid (HClO)-induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The HClO was formed by the reaction of HCl with atmospheric O 2 that entered the tube during shutdowns and startups. Residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... surfaces were considered to have formed during the overheating and subsequent fire periods and not under normal service conditions. The failure mechanism envisaged was that overheating occurred (through reasons impossible to establish from the investigation) resulting in loss of strength of the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... exchanger reportedly experienced some form of leakage following discovery of oil contaminating the cooling water. This heat exchanger was the subject of a failure investigation to determine the cause and location of the leaks. A diagram of the heat exchanger has been shown in Figure 1 . The tube bundle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the ruptured tube determined the failure mechanism was intergranular attack (IGA)/IGSCC, which occurred as a result of deposits formed on the tubes. This deposit, along with the consequential heat flux, created an aggressive environment, and, as a result, a long, deep crack initiated under the deposit under...