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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... damage was typical of alkaline corrosion and confirmed that the boiler tubes failed as a result of steam blanketing that concentrated phosphate salts. The severe alkaline conditions developed most probably because of the decomposition of trisodium phosphate, which was used as a water treatment chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... austenitized. Displacement of metal on the outer raceway was revealed by elongation of grain structure. It was concluded that the failure of the raceway surface was due to incomplete austenitization caused by the improper heat treatment during flame hardening process. Antennas Austenitizing Bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... records that the ring had been removed for hydrotest and welded without any postweld heat treatment. The final cause of failure was concluded to be cracking that developed during the installation of the new shroud ring. Stress-relief heat treatments were recommended to be performed to reduce residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... crosses had been subjected to an induction-heating stress improvement-induction heating the outer wall of the pipe to 550 to 600 °C (1020 to 1110 °F) maximum for a maximum of 12 min while the inside is cooled with water. This treatment leaves a residual tensile stress on the outer surface and a residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A number of machined end frame steel forgings made of Cr-Si-Mn alloy showed tiny cracks during magnetic particle inspection after heat treatment. The cracks were mostly confined to base edges and fillet radius. No significant abnormality was observed in chemical composition...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13(a) AISI S5 tool steel hammer head that cracked during heat treatment. The fracture was caused by quench cracking that was promoted by the decarburized surface ( Fig. 13(b) ) and deep stamp mark (arrows). Actual size More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 17 AISI M2 roughing tool that cracked just after heat treatment. (a) Cracks accentuated with magnetic particles. (b) Microstructural examination revealed a badly overaustenitized condition with a heavy grain-boundary carbide film, coarse plate martensite, and unstable retained austenite More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 22 AISI S7 punch that had a low surface hardness after heat treatment and was given a second carburizing treatment, then rehardened. Cracking was observed after this retreatment (the cracks have been accentuated with magnetic particles). Coarse circumferential machining marks were present More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 34 Coil spring made from AISI H12 tool steel that cracked after heat treatment. A tight seam that was not removed by centerless grinding before heat treatment opened during hardening (arrows). 0.3× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 28 Large welded tube that cracked upon postweld stress-relief heat treatment ( example 12 ) More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 27 Plot of the change in the compressive residual stress due to heat treatment More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 28 X-ray diffraction residual stress versus heat treatment temperature for various iron alloys. Specimens were held at temperature for 1 h and furnace cooled. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 29 Effect of heat treatment temperature on (a) hardness (HRC) and (b) XRD peak integral breadth. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 21 Degree of fatigue strength improvement possible with various treatment techniques. Source: Ref 3 . More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 34 Stress relaxation in carbon steels as a function of postweld heat treatment temperature and hold time. Adapted from Ref 160 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 19 Phase diagram that predicts the results of heat treatment or forging practice. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 4 Micrographs of cracks after heat treatment caused either by sharp radii or related machining problems. (a) 4140 steel as-quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite with quench crack at area of dimensional change. 2% nital etch. Original magnification: 100×. (b) 4142H More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 5 Micrographs of cracks after heat treatment caused by seams in the steel. (a) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 8630 steel as-quenched; microstructure is martensite where cracking initiated from rolling seam (b) SAE type 403 stainless steel as-quenched and tempered; microstructure More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 13 (a) AISI S5 tool steel hammer head that cracked during heat treatment. The fracture was caused by quench cracking that was promoted by the decarburized surface and deep stamp mark (arrows). Actual size. (b) Macroetched disk cut from the head of the sledgehammer. The heavily More