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transgranular fracture

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Grain size Hardness 410 UNS S41000 Heat treating-related failures Transgranular fracture Brittle fracture The clamp-strap assembly shown in Fig. 1 , which was used for securing the caging mechanism on a star-tracking telescope, fractured during installation. In installation, the clamp ends...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Transgranular fracture The cover of a feed cock fitted to an Economic Boiler suddenly blew off and the plug lifted sufficiently to permit the escape of water. An electrician working in the boiler-house sustained personal injury in endeavouring to avoid escaping water and steam. On examination, it was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... distributing units Heating coils Vessels 18Cr-8Ni-3Mo Stress-corrosion cracking Transgranular fracture This case study concerns a process vessel heating coil, which was fabricated from 3 in. O.D. × 12 s.w.g. austenitic stainless steel. The coil consisted of several 3 ft. diameter turns and the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... recommended that normalizing and tempering temperatures be modified and a revised forging practice explored. Heat affected zone Pressure vessels Residual stress Stress relieving Mn-Cr-Mo-V steel Transgranular fracture Joining-related failures A large pressure vessel ( Fig. 1a ) designed for...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... UNS S30400 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit was found to be leaking after 1 month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes, 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) in outside diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cracking was confined to the inner diameter of the vaporizer coil at positions from 4:00 to 7:00. The cracking was characterized as transgranular and the fracture surface had beach marks. The failure mechanism was thermal fatigue. The heat transfer calculation predicted that dryout of the coil would occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Paper machines 316 UNS S31600 Stress-corrosion cracking Transgranular fracture An 8-inch diameter stainless steel black liquor feed pipe to a carbon steel digester had failed within 1 year of service. The material was type 316 molybdenum containing austenitic stainless steel. The service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... acidic environment, have been shown to cause SCC in austenitic stainless steels under tensile stress. Chlorine Couplings Transgranular fracture Water tanks 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Leakage was identified around a coupling welded into a stainless steel holding tank. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Corrosion fatigue Transgranular fracture Two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit were sent to the laboratory for analysis. The tubes had been in service approximately 10 years and had cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends in the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... X2CrNiMo 18 10 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A general view of part of a worm drive made of corrosion resistant chromium nickel steel X2 CrNiMo 18 10 is shown in Fig. 1 as submitted for examination. The specimen comes from a worm drive used in a chemical works at ca. 80° C and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... determined if the failure was related to operating pressure or some other unique cause. 316 UNS S31600 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Several air heat exchangers failed in service in a pulp and paper operation. The tubes are made from AISI 316 stainless steel with an extruded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... shaft. It was suggested that the surfaces be securely clamped together and that an in-service maintenance program be initiated to ensure that the tightness of the clamping bolts was verified regularly. Fretting fatigue Pulverized coal Shafts (power) 4340 UNS G43400 Transgranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... bolts. Crankshafts Diesel engines Flanges Fretting fatigue Marine engines Carbon steel Fretting wear Fatigue fracture Transgranular fracture Fretting-fatigue cracks are normally initiated under a combination of local shear stress, produced by the frictional forces between the rubbing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... S30400 440C UNS S44025 Stress-corrosion cracking Transgranular fracture Because a component failure can result in plant shutdown, delays in delivery, or the introduction of costly restrictions, the time needed to find the failure's cause and to institute corrective action is very critical. Under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of low level surface chlorides. Controls were implemented to insure that temperatures are kept below 150 deg F, or, walls of the pipe are moisture-free or the cumulative wetted period will never exceed 30 h. Chlorides Piping 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Transgranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... from a material immune to stress-corrosion cracking or to use interchangeable linings of such a material. A nickel alloy could be considered. Autoclaves Explosions Pressure vessels X8CrNiMoVNb 16 13 K Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking The damaged forged pressure vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... recommendations were made. Adapters Inclusions Snowthrowers ZA-27 UNS Z35840 Brittle fracture Transgranular fracture A die-cast zinc adapter used in a snowthrower application failed catastrophically in a brittle overload manner. The mechanical properties and alloy designation were not specified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., causing leakage and ultimately failure. Chlorides Insulation Water tanks 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Transgranular fracture Selected Reference • Warke W. R. , Stress-Corrosion Cracking , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... oxygen to form phosphorus pentoxide. Hard soldering in turn prevented the formation of cuprous oxide, and hydrogen embrittlement occurred. Hot water heating Piping Phosphorus-deoxidized copper Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking The site of the damage in the T-piece from a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... equipment Chlorides Piping 316 UNS S31600 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A 680,000 kg (750 ton) per day ammonia unit was shut down following fire near the outlet of the waste heat exchanger. The fire had resulted from leakage of ammonia from the type 316 stainless steel outlet...