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transgranular cracks

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...- and transgranular cracking. It is probable that the heating associated with the repair welds made from time to time also contributed to the trouble. The transgranular cracks, however, were indicative of stress-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Repair welding Storage vessels Vessels Weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that the cracks were predominantly of the intergranular variety. In addition, transgranular cracks were present. Material was an austenitic stainless steel of the type specified but the absence of columbium and titanium in significant amounts showed that it was not stabilized against intergranular carbide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the piping were subjected to temperatures ranging from 29 to 288 deg C. Each of the failures were revealed to consist of transgranular cracking in and/or close to the circumferential butt weld joining the tee fitting to the downstream pipe leg, where the hot bypass water mixed with the cool return water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... millimeters of the tube end, with one being a through-wall crack. Metallographic examination of sections containing the cracks showed branching secondary cracks and a transgranular cracking mode. The cracks appeared to initiate in pits. EDS analysis of a friable deposit found on the inside diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by chloride attack. Examination of the blade microstructure at the fracture origins revealed oxide-filled pits and transgranular cracks. The oxide filled cracks appeared to have originated at small surface pits and probably propagated in a fatigue or corrosion-fatigue fracture mode. It was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... sent back to the manufacturer for repair. Some of the units failed the hydrostatic test after they were repaired. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of branched transgranular cracks characteristic of stress-corrosion cracking. Only some of the tubes failed and these did so by stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was confirmed by metallographic examination of longitudinal sections transverse to the weld and the crack ( Fig. 1b ). The brittleness of this layer (48 to 52 versus 29 to 33 HRC for the base metal) caused transgranular cracks to form and propagate in tension under the thermal stresses created by the repair...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... it to be an austenitic nickel-chromium stainless steel, stabilized by titanium and of the free machining type. Multiple transgranular cracking characteristic of failure from stress-corrosion cracking, was present to an extensive degree. It was considered probable that there had been slight leakage of water from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract After being in service for ten years, two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends. A blunt transgranular cracking with minimal branching propagating from the inside surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... in the weld, heat-affected zone, and base metal. The branching and transgranular cracking was found to emanate primarily from the exterior of the tank. It was concluded that the tank failed as a result of stress-corrosion cracking that initiated at the exterior surface as aqueous chlorides, especially within...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was covered with fine branching cracks and was flaking off. Microscopic examination showed that the unetched polished material had disintegrated to an average depth of 1 mm below the surface. A micrograph of the etched surface revealed numerous deformation lines and transgranular cracking. The failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analysis, and microhardness, tensile, and impact testing. The results revealed transgranular cracks in the HAZ and base plate, likely initiated by stresses developed during welding and the presence of chloride from seawater used in the plant. It was also found that the repair weld was improperly done, nor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Cooling water deposits were observed in a V-shaped corner formed by the weld. A metallurgical examination identified the presence of transgranular cracks in the HAZ on the cooling water side. Analysis of the cooling water revealed the presence of chlorides. Based on the metallurgical analysis and other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract The presence of secondary, branching intergranular stress-corrosion cracking in a type 440C stainless bearing caused the analyst to overlook the real culprit, which was a mechanically-initiated, primary transgranular crack that propagated through the steel's hard chromium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0006897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... wire failures had characteristics generally associated with corrosion fatigue. The broken wires showed multiple transgranular cracks near the failure, originating at the bases of pits. It was diagnosed that the copper tail wire failures were due to corrosion fatigue. The solution to this problem...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0089663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... hole. The combination of cyclic loading (thermal fatigue), an aggressive service environment (steam), and internal defects resulted in gradual crack propagation, which was, at times, intergranular-with or without corrosive attack-and, at other times, was transgranular. Casings Casting defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the polished surfaces. The replicas revealed the presence of SCC, probably from atmospheric chlorides concentrating under the insulation. The cracks were transgranular, and some extended 50 mm (2 in.) in length. In Gulf Coast petrochemical plants, SCC under wet insulation is common, because the marine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... space. This was characteristic of corrosion fatigue. The second type of cracking originated at some of the major cracks. These cracks were branched and transgranular, which is characteristic of stress-corrosion caused by chlorides. The third crack mode, an intergranular network, was most probably...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracking, corrosion under deposit (pitting and crevice), and dezincification. Fractures were transgranular and typical of stress-corrosion cracking. The primary cause of the corrosion deposit was low-flow conditions in those parts of the condenser where failure occurred. Maintenance of proper flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... by transgranular branched cracking and had originated from the inside surface. It was concluded that the tubes failed in SCC caused by chlorides in the presence of high residual stresses. The finned tubes were ordered in the annealed condition as a corrective measure. Annealing Heat exchanger tubes 304...