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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Six transformer brackets failed in service, sending a group of three pole-mounted transformers to the ground below. The brackets were made from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin and had been in service for more than 30 years. Remnants of the fractured brackets were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... deg F). Visual and binocular inspection at 64+ revealed presence of cracks and complete washout of coating in the working area of the failed punch. Comparison of metallographic cross sections of used and unused punches revealed a significant microstructural transformation in case of the used punch...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that the cracks were caused primarily by the presence of coarse untempered martensite in the heat affected zone due to localized heating. The localized heating was caused by high welding heat input or low welding speed and resulted in high transformation stresses. These transformation stresses, working...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the effects of various material- and process-related parameters on residual stress, distortion control, cracking, and microstructure/property relationships as they relate to various types of failure. It discusses phase transformations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 1 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Properties measured Use in failure analysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Molecular bond structure Material identification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Quench-related failures whereby components that cracked either during or immediately after the heat treatment/quenching operation were sectioned for metallographic examination of the microstructure to examine the degree of phase transformation. Examination of premature tensile specimen failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... that produced poorly formed weld burrs. The postweld heat treatment was standardized on the 760 deg C (1400 deg F) transformation treatment. The chisel shape of the wire ends was abandoned in favor of flat filed ends. The wrap test was improved by adopting a hand-cranked device. Under these conditions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... as compared with the nonstained region. Some carbon and oxygen were detected in both areas, which may be suggestive of organic substances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed traces of hydrocarbons and ether/alcohol materials in the stained area, suggesting that the stain was associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
...Abstract Abstract A large portion of the four-hole Lane plate disintegrated and consisted mainly of corrosion products after remaining in the body for 26 years. Transformation structures and carbides were exhibited by the plate which was made from chromium steel. Minimal corrosion was exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0090639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... due to the cold-working coining process, and high residual stresses created by welding. Recommendations included the removal of the brittle, carbon-rich transformed martensite layer introduced by flame cutting and the application of a localized stress-relief heat treatment process. X-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The microstructure near the rupture edge was revealed by metallographic examination to consist of ferrite and acicular martensite or bainite. The microstructure and the observed lack of cold work indicated a temperature above the transformation temperature of 727 deg C had been reached. Swelling of the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Thermal and transformation stresses, resulting from welding, adding up with operational stresses can result in failure. Examples involving the crankshaft of a shaft-drive to produce artificial waves in a swimming pool, the joint bar of a dredger cast out of a running non...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The techniques utilized included scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermomechanical analysis, and melt flow rate determination. It was the conclusion of the investigation that the part failed via brittle fracture, with evidence also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... pipe had become coarse-grained and acicular, and the microstructure of the welding seam had become predominantly martensitic as a result of the mixing of the weld metal with the fused pipe material. The chrome steel pipe had become partially transformed to martensite or bainite at the transition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... brazed into the blades inadmissible localized overheating of the steel must have occurred, which resulted in transformation stresses and hence reduced deformability. The cracks arose as a consequence of careless brazing. Whether the cracks should be considered as stress cracks over their entire extent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... of the rotor. Actual operating temperatures exceeded those intended for this application. The presence of transformation products in the brake-rotor edge indicated that the lower critical temperature had been exceeded during operation. Critical temperature Pearlite Phase decomposition 60-40-18 UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... caused unstable retained austenite in the failed cylinder to transform to martensite. The increase in volume resulted in sufficient size distortion to cause interference between the cylinder and the spool, seizing, and loss of flow control. The failed parts had been carburized in a process in which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the metal of the three cracked components. Bend tests verified the conclusion that the most likely mechanism of delayed quench cracking was isothermal transformation of retained austenite to martensite under the influence of residual quenching stresses. Recommendations included modifying the quenching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0046238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... Thermal transformation of the metal also causes a stress concentration that may lead to fatigue failure. Recommendations included insulating the conductor to prevent arc burning at the base of the longitudinal oil hole. Also, a borescope or metal monitor could be used to inspect the hole for evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Portions of the superheater were retubed five years previously with Grade 722 material. The failures indicated that tubes were exposed to long-term overheating conditions. While the carbon steel tube did not experience temperatures above the lower transformation temperature 727 deg C (1340 deg F...