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transformation hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A case-hardened sleeve made of C 15 (Material No. 1.0401) was flattened at two opposing sides and had cracked open at these places, the crack initiating at a face plane. The wall of the sleeve was 9 mm thick, but the flat ends were machined down to 5.5 mm from the outside. The customer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a relatively hard transformation product; and to achieve the desired as-quenched hardness. The most common transformational products that may be formed from austenite in quench-hardenable steels are, in order of formation with decreasing cooling rate: martensite, bainite, pearlite, ferrite, and cementite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation. Hardening Pipe Weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and contraction that occurs within a part because of thermal gradients during heating and cooling. In addition to thermal stresses, steels are subjected to transformation stresses when they are hardened to martensite during quenching. Some specific problem areas associated with distortion and cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of the springs was caused by stress cracks as a consequence of local hardening. The hardening caused by melting and resolidification, and therefore the cracks in the springs, was the result of a faulty procedure during cadmium electroplating. Cadmium plating Leaf springs Stress cracking C 88 Surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The uncracked pipe consisted of soft steel that obviously was made for this purpose, while the cracked pipe consisted of a strongly-hardenable steel which contained not only more carbon and manganese than customary but also a considerable amount of chromium. Therefore, the damage was caused by a mix-up...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and was adapted to the latter by diffusion only at the periphery of the inclusion. In another section of a hardened piece of the same chromium steel, the steel in this case had a structure of martensite with hypereutectic carbide, while the inclusions consisted of a very fine laminated eutectoid of the lower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... doubtlessly also contributed to this, which could not be prevented by working because the thread was rolled. It is well known 1 that stresses occur. during hardening of case decarburized parts through an advance of the γ-α-transformation which can lead to quench cracks. Incidentally, hardening tests...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... tempered martensite. Core microstructure is hardened and tempered structure with upper transformation product. Figure 6 shows micrograph at X100 magnification. Fig. 6 Microstructure of SAE 1117 carburized and hardened specimen Nital 3% ×100 Hardness Measurements Hardness was measured...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 15 Deformation of medium-carbon and hardenable steel bars by quenching from below and above the transformation temperature and by stress relieving. l c , change of length; WQ, water quench; OQ, oil quench. (a) to (c) JIS S38C steel (0.38% C). (d) to (f) JIS SNCM 439 steel (0.39% C, 1.8 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Sometimes, they alone initiate cracks in the weld or in the basic material, especially if the steel is hardenable, i.e. if due to fast cooling transformation in martensite occurs 1 . Fast cooling rates occur during welding, because the welding heat is quickly conducted into the relatively massive and cold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... modification through heat treatment is hardenability. Hardenability is a term used to quantify the relative response of a material to thermal treatment transformation to martensite based upon alloying elements and other variables. Many researchers have empirically determined the individual and combined effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the disk. The welding heat and rapid cooling caused the base material of the disk – already with a martensitic structure – to harden throughout the torus, both of which caused cracking in the inner and outer fillets at the transition from bushing to disk. Visual inspection of the other rear wheel showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to exist in this particular rail from fit-up distortion, flame-hardening treatment, and weld repairs. Circumstances Leading to Failure The first crack in the rail appeared immediately following installation and heat treatment. The rail flange separated with a loud report; no load had yet been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...-cutting, a narrow band of material on each side of the cut was raised above the hardening temperature. When the torch had passed the rate of abstraction of heat from this zone by conduction into the cold mass of the rail was sufficiently rapid to amount to a quench and thus cause local hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the tendency for martensitic transformations and the hardenability therefore increases. This increase in hardenability is responsible for the transformation of austenite into martensite even under the conditions of slow cooling. The coarse microstructure produced is therefore higher in hardness as compared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the sheet, or else they ran in the sheet material next to the weld. The quality of the welds could not be judged because the opposite fracture pieces to which they adhered had not been sent in. It was concluded that the breakaway of these bosses was at least favored by overheating and hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a precipitation-hardening alloy, with a corresponding loss in strength. It is well known to metallurgists that exposure to cryogenic temperatures may cause cracking in a martensitic steel due to the volume change accompanying the transformation of retained austenite. What may not be as well appreciated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a precipitation-hardening alloy, with a corresponding loss in strength. It is well known to metallurgists that exposure to cryogenic temperatures may cause cracking in a martensitic steel due to the volume change accompanying the transformation of retained austenite. What may not be as well appreciated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... there are higher concentrations of sulfides surrounded by a higher carbon matrix. These higher carbon regions have higher hardenability than the surrounding core and therefore transformed into martensite during the quench after austenitizing while the surrounding core formed ferrite and pearlite...