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transformation hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A case-hardened sleeve made of C 15 (Material No. 1.0401) was flattened at two opposing sides and had cracked open at these places, the crack initiating at a face plane. The wall of the sleeve was 9 mm thick, but the flat ends were machined down to 5.5 mm from the outside...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a relatively hard transformation product; and to achieve the desired as-quenched hardness. The most common transformational products that may be formed from austenite in quench-hardenable steels are, in order of formation with decreasing cooling rate: martensite, bainite, pearlite, ferrite, and cementite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... intergranularly. Quench cracking may be aggravated by the various mechanisms of grain-boundary weakening and grain size, but it also is heavily influenced by volumetric expansion during transformation hardening and the temperature extremes of quenching. Quench cracking is not addressed in this article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Microstructural examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation. Hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... complex mechanism is quench cracking, which almost always occurs intergranularly. Quench cracking is heavily influenced by volumetric expansion during transformation hardening and the temperature extremes of quenching but can be aggravated by some of the mechanisms mentioned previously as well as grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... transformation product. Figure 6 shows micrograph at X100 magnification. Fig. 6 Microstructure of SAE 1117 carburized and hardened specimen Nital 3% ×100 Hardness was measured on a Rockwell hardness tester with 150 kg load using a diamond indenter. The following readings were taken for the sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... steel and was adapted to the latter by diffusion only at the periphery of the inclusion. In another section of a hardened piece of the same chromium steel, the steel in this case had a structure of martensite with hypereutectic carbide, while the inclusions consisted of a very fine laminated eutectoid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The uncracked pipe consisted of soft steel that obviously was made for this purpose, while the cracked pipe consisted of a strongly-hardenable steel which contained not only more carbon and manganese than customary but also a considerable amount of chromium. Therefore, the damage was caused by a mix-up...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... Fracture of the springs was caused by stress cracks as a consequence of local hardening. The hardening caused by melting and resolidification, and therefore the cracks in the springs, was the result of a faulty procedure during cadmium electroplating. Cadmium plating Leaf springs Stress cracking C...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is most often severe in heat treatments that involve quenching. In hardenable steels, the principal cause of warping on quenching is nonuniform rates of transformation. The effect of transformational stresses may be intensified if a nonuniform composition exists; this nonuniformity may be the result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to moderately elevated temperatures may cause overaging in a precipitation-hardening alloy, with a corresponding loss in strength. It is well known to metallurgists that exposure to cryogenic temperatures may cause cracking in a martensitic steel due to the volume change accompanying the transformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... produced at higher temperatures (due to localized heating) has higher hardenability as compared to fine grain sizes, because the grain boundary area per unit volume decreases. This results in lesser number of potent sites available for nucleation of ferrite and pearlite. Thus, the transformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in failure. Sometimes, they alone initiate cracks in the weld or in the basic material, especially if the steel is hardenable, i.e. if due to fast cooling transformation in martensite occurs 1 . Fast cooling rates occur during welding, because the welding heat is quickly conducted into the relatively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... doubtlessly also contributed to this, which could not be prevented by working because the thread was rolled. It is well known 1 that stresses occur. during hardening of case decarburized parts through an advance of the γ-α-transformation which can lead to quench cracks. Incidentally, hardening tests...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... property modification through heat treatment is hardenability. Hardenability is a term used to quantify the relative response of a material to thermal treatment transformation to martensite based upon alloying elements and other variables. Many researchers have empirically determined the individual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-boundary embrittlement or quench cracking. In the case of the rail flange, the evidence suggests that the intergranular cracks were created during or immediately following quenching when the rail was heat treated. The observations that the regions of intergranular fracture coincide with the flame-hardened...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... surrounded by a higher carbon matrix. These higher carbon regions have higher hardenability than the surrounding core and therefore transformed into martensite during the quench after austenitizing while the surrounding core formed ferrite and pearlite. This is centerline casting segregation where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... at the grain boundaries. The matrix was comprised of untempered martensite ( Fig. 7 ). The estimated austenitizing temperature was 1010 °C (1850 °F). The tempering procedure failed to transform the structure into tempered martensite. Fig. 7 Micrograph showing the untempered martensitic structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the outside of the disk. The welding heat and rapid cooling caused the base material of the disk – already with a martensitic structure – to harden throughout the torus, both of which caused cracking in the inner and outer fillets at the transition from bushing to disk. Visual inspection of the other rear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...-cutting, a narrow band of material on each side of the cut was raised above the hardening temperature. When the torch had passed the rate of abstraction of heat from this zone by conduction into the cold mass of the rail was sufficiently rapid to amount to a quench and thus cause local hardening...