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transformation curve

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 Cooling paths for (a) martempering, (b) austempering, and (c) time quenching superimposed on the isothermal transformation curve for eutectoid steel More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 77 Direct quenching from carburizing temperature. (a) Phase diagram schematic. (b) Continuous cooling transformation curve for a high-carbon surface. (c) Micrograph of direct quenched 3% Ni-Cr carburized steel. 280×. Source: Ref 30 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 66 Comparison of cooling curves as a workpiece cools into and through the martensite transformation range for a conventional quenching and tempering process and for interrupted quenching processes. (a) Conventional quenching and tempering. (b) Marquenching. (c) Modified marquenching. Ae 1 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature and the M s may be determined in order to construct a CCT diagram, such as the one shown for an unalloyed carbon steel (AISI 1045) in Fig. 2 . Continuous cooling transformation curves provide data on the temperatures for each phase transformation, the amount of transformation product obtained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... that is expected to have intermediate strength and toughness ( Fig. 3a ). Coarse grains of ferrite are observed indicative of low carbon ferrite phases ( Fig. 3a ). Feathery bainite forms just below the nose of the time temperature transformation curve [ 2 ] at intermediate cooling rates. Microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of castings or pouring with curves, for instance, iron rods are used, from which pieces may melt off and fall into the liquid steel. But more probably the metallic inclusions originate in floated base places of carbon-deficient steel, such as are inserted into the mold in casting from the above...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract This article introduces some of the general sources of heat treating problems with particular emphasis on problems caused by the actual heat treating process and the significant thermal and transformation stresses within a heat treated part. It addresses the design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and a procedure to deal with stress by determining maximum values through stress transformation is described. The article provides the stress analysis equations of typical component geometries and discusses some of the implications of the stress analysis relative to failure in components. It focuses on linear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It also provides information on the applications of fracture mechanics in failure analysis. crack-like imperfection elastic-plastic fracture mechanics failure analysis fracture mechanics linear elastic fracture mechanics stress analysis stress transformation subcritical fracture mechanics...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... transformation. All samples were case decarburized. The average depths of decarburization of all 30 samples were measured to be: Shipment S 1 S 2 G Depth of fully decarburized zone [mm] 0,05 0,05 0 Total decarburized depth [mm] 0,14 0,12 0,05 Fig. 1 Core structure of the wires...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at elevated temperatures. The article describes the stages of the creep curve, discusses processes involved in the extrapolation of creep data, and summarizes notable creep constitutive models and continuum damage mechanics models. It demonstrates the effects of stress relaxation and redistribution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... + log   t f ) - 7.25 Equation 1 , together with creep rupture stress R m in 100,000 hours, lead to the determination of the specific curve creep stress-rupture strenght vs LMP for each steel. Thus, Table 1 shows the values of R m for the three steels considered, 10CrMo9-10...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... and subsequently lowered the ductility of the molded hinge assemblies. No recommendations were made. Fourier transform infrared analysis Hinges Nylon Thermogravimetric analysis 13% glass-fiber reinforced nylon Brittle fracture A production lot of mechanical hinges had failed during incoming quality...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is inhomogeneous in terms of chemical composition. Thus, during cooling cycle in the annealing treatment, stresses were developed because of nonhomogeneous transformation of the material. Fig. 2 Schematic after opening of the tube showing the positions at which the XRD analysis was performed Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the measured hardness values. The surface hardness is affected by retained austenite formation as had been determined already metallographically, and the core hardness at the flattened points is too high for a surface hardened piece that should have a core of some strain capacity. Fig. 5 Hardness curve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to ensure more uniform quenching (so that transformation to 100% martensite was accomplished on all parts), the problem was solved. Example 4: Bending of an Aircraft-Wing Slat Track. A curved member called a slat track ( Fig. 10 ), which supported the extendable portion of the leading edge...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that transformation to 100% martensite was accomplished on all parts), the problem was solved. Example 4: Bending of an Aircraft-Wing Slat Track A curved member called a slat track ( Fig. 10 ), which supported the extendable portion of the leading edge of the wing on a military aircraft, failed by bending...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... survey across the base metal, heat-affected zone (HAZ), and weld. The base metal microstructure exhibited highly banded pearlite in a ferritic matrix. The HAZ was a mixture of intermediate transformation products that did not appear to be of high hardness or brittle in nature. The microhardness survey...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Tree was theoretically built, and the structural variations of the failed encapsulant were characterized compared with the normal encapsulant, using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), x-ray energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), and differential scanning calorimetry coupled...