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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines the results of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Abstract A failed spiral gear and pinion set made from 4320H Ni-Cr-Mo alloy steel operating in a high-speed electric traction motor gear unit driving a rapid transit train were submitted for analysis. The pinion was intact, but the gear had broken into two sections that resulted when two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 117 , 1995 , p 482 – 489 10.1115/1.2831279 129. Kleemola J. and Lehtovaara A. , An Approach for Determination of Lubricant Properties at Elliptical Elastohydrodynamic Contacts Using a Twin-Disc Test Device and a Numerical Traction Model , Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. , Vol 222...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hammers may complicate analysis. Alignment problems are also more likely to arise with pivotal hammers than in ballistic rigs. This can mean that small tangential oscillations are induced between hammer and counterface, leading to surface damage by shear tractions. Fig. 21 Pivotal hammer impact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... provides information on physics and testing of rolling-contact fatigue. Processes commonly used to produce bearings for demanding applications are also covered. coatings Hertzian contact theory rolling-contact fatigue rolling-element bearings surface-initiated fatigue wear ROLLING-CONTACT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... may complicate analysis. Alignment problems are also more likely to arise with pivotal hammers than in ballistic rigs. This can mean that small tangential oscillations are induced between hammer and counterface, leading to surface damage by shear tractions. Fig. 23 Reciprocating hammer impact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... structural components superplastic deformation boundary sliding dislocation creep high-strength low alloy steel decohesions traction testing grain size elongation Ti-Nb microalloyed ultrafine-grained steel (UGS steel, general) high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA steel, general...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... many boilers of a similar age on vintage traction engines in the hands of New Zealand hobbyists. Annual inspections of these boilers is mandatory, and it was during such an inspection that the stud was accidentally dropped. Unetched, the sample showed only a large number of manganese sulfide (MnS 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... delineate the factors that did not contribute to failure, as this information can also help to avoid recurrence of the failure. Labeled grades of wires are of historical significance, but are somewhat vague. The following grades have been specified: iron, traction steel, cast steel, extra strong cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by relief of the residual compressive stress that arises in the traction-free flange. The cone spinning instability is similar to the wrinkling phenomenon in deep drawing operations. Gur and Tirosh 5 studied the plastic flow instability in tube spinning and found that instability occurs if the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( Ref 2 ) that failed due to overheating of the friction bearing. 3 The train was approaching a city, and no power was being applied from the traction motor through the axle to the wheels, because they had to continuously reduce their speed as they approached the city. Lubrication was lost to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... engines In an investigation of a series of failures of diesel locomotive axles, it was found that the cause was LMIE by the lead-base Babbitt metal in the traction motor suspension bearings ( Ref 17 ). The Babbitt was a Pb-Sb-Sn alloy. Due to loss of lubrication, the bearings heated to a temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../978-1-4684-9084-8_16 8. White W.E. Microscopy and the Study of Corrosion . Applied Metallography Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1986 , pp. 281 – 296 10.1007/978-1-4684-9084-8_17 9. “ Standard Test Methods for Estimating the Depth of Decarburization of Steel Specimens ,” E 1077...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... airplane engines Failure of fourth-stage compressor wheels of helicopter jet engines In an investigation of a series of failures of diesel locomotive axles, it was found that the cause was LMIE by the lead-base Babbitt metal in the traction motor suspension bearings ( Ref 17 ). The Babbitt was a...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ratios; traction measurements; designed for ceramics Ref 27 Note: NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Further information can be found on the following pages of Ref 26 : (a) p 5–45, (b) p 46–66, (c) p 67–84, (d) p 85–106, (e) p 107–124, (f) p 125–135...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... remaining five cables until routine inspection discovered the broken cable. The cable was made of 16-mm ( 5 8 -in.) diam steel wire rope designated as 8 × 19 G Preformed Extra High Strength Special Traction Elevator Cable with fiber core. The cables had been in service for 1 1 2 years...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... simplest and most effective tests for incoming material is a simple standard upset test. The details of such a test can be worked out between the supplier and the cold forger. The methods to reveal the presence of segregation may depend on the alloy and expected impurities. Macroetching is commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... anisotropic materials. Although many practical stress states can be analyzed in two dimensions, the more complex 3D case is now examined. Complicated loading and/or geometry may induce a stress state in which none of the stress components is zero. For example, normal and tangential surface tractions as...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface tractions as occur in combined rolling and sliding problems often generate a local 3D stress state, and failures are often associated with the attendant sliding friction. Notches, which are frequent crack initiation sites, when subjected to external loads often generate triaxial stress states and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-load ratings are based on results of laboratory rolling-contact fatigue tests that have been conducted under conditions as near ideal as possible. Any departure from these reasonably ideal conditions, such as misalignment, vibration, shock loading, insufficient or inefficient lubrication, extremes of...