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top-down parallel lapping

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in Figure 1 . In the region of the cracks, the surface of the pipe had been ground prior to receipt, and it will be noted that there are indications of other defects in the same vicinity. Adjacent to the top, left-hand corner in the illustration, exfoliation, suggestive of the presence of a lap weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... a dome at the top, situated at approximately mid-length. It appears that trouble was experienced due to leakage from the riveted seams of the vessel shortly after it was installed and, as caulking proved ineffective, it was decided to seal-weld the edges of some of the butt-straps, laps, and internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The piping system was completely surveyed to ensure that only the specified metal was used. Replacements were made when the wrong metal was found. Fig. 1 A specimen from a low-carbon steel nipple showing fissuring at grain boundaries (top) caused by hydrogen attack. 80× A common experience...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... A significant improvement in air-melted bearing steels has occurred in recent years. Bearing steels are currently made by electric-furnace melting, ladle refining, and casting by either bottom or top pouring of ingots or continuous casting. The air-melted steel quality is approaching that of electroslag...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ) during solidification and contraction of the metal, when there may eventually be insufficient liquid metal to feed the last remaining portions as they contract. A concave cavity thus forms at the top of the ingot because of metal shrinkage during solidification. The cavity usually forms in the shape...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... minimized, to maintain minimum manufacturing costs. Unexpected tool and die failure can shut down a manufacturing line and disrupt production scheduling. This leads to higher costs. Tools and dies must also be produced with the proper size and shape after hardening so that excessive finishing work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... longitudinal splitting. Actual size Fig. 51 Failed AISI H26 exhaust-valve punch. (a) and (b) Longitudinal splitting of the punch caused by fatigue. Note the fracture progression starting from the top center at the punch. The punch surfaces were nitrided. (c) Top surface. Original magnification: 100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Optical microscopy of the fracture surface is also useful to show the extent to which the metal deposits had penetrated any branch cracks; solid deposits can accumulate on an exposed fracture surface after a failure, but penetration down branch cracks implies the deposit was likely molten at temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is exposed to hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures. The piping system was completely surveyed to ensure that only the specified metal was used. Replacements were made when the wrong metal was found. Fig. 3 Specimen from a low-carbon steel nipple showing fissuring at grain boundaries (top...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... they are usually associated. This type of weld flares out near the weld face, resembling an inverted top hat. Hat cracks are the result of excessive voltage or welding speed. The cracks are located about halfway up through the weld and extend into the weld metal from the fusion line of the joint. These cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the laboratory. The drive-shaft splines that engaged the impeller were almost completely destroyed down to the roots (Detail A, Fig. 8 ). Extensive damage to the splines was apparent because on subsequent reassembly the shaft could be rotated without rotating the impeller. The pressure side of each spline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... widely used than acetate tape techniques) Two-part liquid silicon-base compound is applied to surface, allowed to set, then removed for caliper, optical, or laser measurements. Crack widths down to ≈100 μm Difficult to apply on ceiling or wall-oriented surfaces Simple and intuitive Metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...× Fig. 11 Die-cast zinc alloy nuts from a water tap. (a) Nut for the cold-water tap that failed by stress-corrosion cracking. (b) Mating nut for the hot-water top that shows only isolated areas of corrosion. (c) Unetched section showing metal in the cold-water tap after corrosion testing. Original...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... The post failed in fatigue because of improper design and choice of flange metal. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 42 Two types of poor contours in arc welds. (a) Fillet weld showing undercut at each weld toe plus weld spatter and uneven leg length. (b) Butt weld (top) showing excessive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ) that extended over the lower-right quarter of the fracture surface. Cracking then propagated in tension through sound metal (region B, Fig. 4b ) and terminated in a shear lip at the top of the eye (region C, Fig. 4b ). The stress state that produced the fracture approximated simple tension. Conclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at the main (top) and pin journal (bottom) radii. (b) Fine, parallel, longitudinal cracks (arrows) were identified at the radius. Similar cracking was identified on adjacent main journal radii. (c) Micrograph of cross-sectional specimen prepared through the main journal remote from the fracture showing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracking (SCC), internal sulfide-stress cracking, and hydrogen blistering. The failures break down into two general classes: those occurring from the inside surface of the pipe and those occurring from the outside surface of the pipe. Generally, the failures initiating on the inside pipe surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... necessary to employ aggressive fluxes to break down these oxides to permit suitable brazeability. The topic of oxide stability is discussed further later in this article. A wide variety of different fluxes are available for brazing, and many of them are matched with particular braze alloy compositions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is usually more severe than fresh water because saltwater is a better electrolyte and because the electrochemical current generated by inhomogeneities in the same metal or by different metals is greater. Also, the chloride ions present break down the protective oxide film and corrosion products. Completely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4