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tin-bismuth (tin-bismuth plating alloy, general)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., which was confirmed as the failure mechanism in the investigation. electrical connectors tin pest plating defect copper alpha tin x-ray diffraction temperature copper (copper contact alloy, general) tin-bismuth (tin-bismuth plating alloy, general) Introduction Failure Background...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... some solder penetration. The same results were observed when liquid tin, lead, zinc, cadmium, or Lipowitz alloy (a tin-lead-bismuth-cadmium alloy sometimes containing indium) was used. In 1968, studies were conducted on the influence of cold work on the LME of pure iron and Fe-2Si ( Ref 27 ). Sheet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was detected. The solder chemistries in all four heads were similar, containing bismuth, lead, tin, and cadmium. The demo unit, after being intentionally actuated using a propane torch, exhibited a resolidified crystalline structure in the solder of the copper cups when examined by scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... alloy systems, except tin-bismuth alloys, which are commonly used for low-temperature soldering processes ( Ref 3 ). Typical compositions of solder alloys Table 1 Typical compositions of solder alloys Categories of solders Composition Melting point Eutectic solder? °C °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., chromium, titanium, and alloys containing these metals. Also, under limited conditions, other metals such as zinc, cadmium, tin, uranium, and thorium have also been observed to exhibit passivity effects. Passivity, although difficult to define, can be quantitatively described by characterizing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Performance of Alloy Groupings Magnesium Magnesium occupies an extremely active position in most galvanic series and is therefore highly susceptible to galvanic corrosion. Metals that combine active potentials with higher hydrogen overvoltages, such as aluminum, zinc, cadmium, and tin, are much less...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... there may be a few exceptions to this rule. Generally, only a few chemical species in the environment are effective in causing SCC of a given alloy. The species responsible for SCC in general need not be present in large quantities or in high concentrations. With some alloy/corrodent combinations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to galvanic corrosion. Metals that combine active potentials with higher hydrogen overvoltages, such as aluminum, zinc, cadmium, and tin, are much less damaging, although not fully compatible with magnesium. Aluminum alloys that contain small percentages of copper (7000 and 2000 series and 380 die-casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It describes the general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article briefly reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including discussion on mixed-mode cracking. Factors associated with overload failures are discussed, and, where appropriate, preventive steps...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may also occur when an overload failure is caused by a combination of ductile and brittle cracking mechanisms. It describes the general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article discusses some of the material, mechanical, and environmental factors that may be involved in determining...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ], and nickel-chromium alloys [NiO · Cr 2 O 3 ]). If the oxide film is damaged, it is self repairing at the high temperature but does not survive at room temperature ( Ref 89 ). Titanium alloys do not behave in quite the same way; however, as shown in Fig. 28 , implantation with bismuth or barium ions results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are generally attacked by molten aluminum, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and tin ( Ref 45 ). Nickel, nickel-chromium, and nickel-copper alloys generally have poor resistance to molten metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium. In general, nickel-chromium alloys also are not suitable for use in molten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 2000–2150 C83600 1150–1290 2100–2350 1065–1175 1950–2150 C83800 1150–1260 2100–2300 1065–1175 1950–2150 Leaded semired brass C84400 1150–1260 2100–2300 1065–1175 1950–2150 C84800 1150–1260 2100–2300 1065–1175 1950–2150 Tin bronze C90300 1150–1260 2100–2300 1040–1150...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that will modify the alloy properties. The rate of creep deformation is a function of the material, load, and temperature. The rate of damage (strain rate) is sensitive to both load and temperature. Generally, an increase of approximately 12 °C (25 °F) or an increase of 15% on stress can cut the remaining life...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be incorrect, or the metallurgical properties may not meet requirements. This often results from a misunderstanding of the operating conditions by the designer. A common cause of failure of pressure vessels is the use of an alloy other than the one specified. Sometimes, bars or plates are not properly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4