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time-temperature-transformation diagrams

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Alloy 430 time-temperature-transformation diagram 16 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The formation of these products and the proportions of each are dependent on the time and temperature cooling history of the particular alloy and the elemental composition of that alloy. The transformation products formed are typically illustrated with the use of transformation diagrams, which show...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is somewhat normal. A higher Ni content increases the amount of martensite transformation on rapid cooling or quenching. The martensitic phase contains less Cr than ferrite and therefore corrodes more rapidly. Fig. 4 Alloy 430 time-temperature-transformation diagram 16 Partially transformed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... austenitizing time is determined by dividing the total time in the furnace between heating time (the time necessary to bring the part to the austenitizing temperature) and transformation time (the time required to produce the desired microstructural transformation or to complete the desired diffusion process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... loading ( Ref 2 , 3 ). This includes numerical methods to predict response-time histories, theory-based pressure-impulse diagrams, or closed-form energy equations that predict maximum responses of an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom or multi-degree-of-freedom system. Using these methods requires...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electron microscopy TG transgranular TGA thermogravimetric analysis TIFF tagged image file format T-L long transverse-longitudinal TMA thermomechanical analysis on list TME tempered-martensite embrittlement TMF thermomechanical fatigue TOF-SIMS time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy TOTM triocytl...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the gas temperature rapidly, thus creating conditions for the formation of an unstable endothermic gas mixture. The time sequence may have been as short as 5 min during each startup and shutdown, based on the time required to through-carburize the type 304 stainless steel sleeve and tube. The F.E...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ), which results in the transformation of pearlite to cementite. The formation of spheroidal carbides by the decomposition of pearlite is a time- and temperature-dependent reaction. Transformation at 677 °C (1250 °F) is about 100 times faster than at 538 °C (1000 °F) ( Ref 1 ). However, in the present case...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-carbide, silicon-nitride, or boron-nitride. Refractories and structural ceramics are generally thought to be inert and corrosion resistant (as compared to metallic alloys), and they are, relatively so, at room temperature, under dry atmosphere, and over long time intervals. With increasing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... thermoset with degree of conversion α = 1 Fig. 10 Idealized time-temperature-transformation cure diagram. A plot of the times to gelation and vitrification during isothermal cure versus temperature delineates the regions of four distinct states of matter: liquid, gelled rubber, gelled glass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... causes precipitation of M 23 C 6 carbide within the delta ferrite. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams [ 8 ] for type 308 weld metal show carbide precipitation will be slow at 607°C and neither 23.8h nor 50h will complete the process. Precipitation is fastest at 650–750°C. Sigma phase formation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... similar to A202B ( Fig. 12 ). Adjusting this relationship for the strain rates used in normal tensile testing resulted in a plot of elevated-temperature tensile strength versus temperature ( Fig. 13 , top curve). Anderson and Norris also investigated the short-time stress-rupture behavior of ASTM 612...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) fracture with a concurrent decrease in ductility. That is, there is a minimum ductility at elevated temperature (within the “creep” range) where the fracture mechanism changes from TG to IG fracture with a concurrent loss in ductility. Creep, or time-dependent strain, is a relatively long-term...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) to intergranular (IG) fracture with a concurrent decrease in ductility. That is, there is a minimum ductility at elevated temperature (within the creep range) where the fracture mechanism changes from TG to IG fracture with a concurrent loss in ductility. Creep, or time-dependent strain, is a relatively long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Berlin Fig. 1 Typical curves related to the failure of a product design as a function of time Fig. 3 Fishbone diagram, showing the most common cause categories Abstract Failure analysis is the process used to determine the cause of a failure. There is no definitive method...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the life assessment methods for elevated-temperature failure mechanisms and metallurgical instabilities that reduce life or cause loss of function or operating time of high-temperature components, namely, gas turbine blade, and power plant piping and tubing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be found in the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for the nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718, as seen in Fig. 15 ( Ref 37 ). At the right side of the TTT diagram, it is noted how stress promotes the formation of two undesirable phases: alpha chromium and sigma. Some of the metal AM processes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to follow the weak graphite flakes was the likely cause of the jagged propagation path seen in Fig. 9 . The presence of corrosion products indicated that the crack had existed for a significant period of time and was not formed during the rupture incident. A sample of the product was analyzed and shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... but allowing the pilot sufficient flying time to land. In any case, the goal of failure analysis is to understand a situation sufficiently well to determine if changes in design, manufacture, or other areas are needed. When confronted with a cracked, fractured, or deformed component, the failure analyst...