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time-temperature transformation

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Alloy 430 time-temperature-transformation diagram 16 More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The formation of these products and the proportions of each are dependent on the time and temperature cooling history of the particular alloy and the elemental composition of that alloy. The transformation products formed are typically illustrated with the use of transformation diagrams, which show...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is somewhat normal. A higher Ni content increases the amount of martensite transformation on rapid cooling or quenching. The martensitic phase contains less Cr than ferrite and therefore corrodes more rapidly. Fig. 4 Alloy 430 time-temperature-transformation diagram 16 Partially transformed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... terephthalic acid thermoplastic polyester thermoplastic polyimide turns per inch thermoplastic polyurethane Abbreviations Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics / 703 TTT UBC UHMWPE UL UP UV VA VC VDC VHP time-temperature-transformation Uniform Building Code ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that tube 1 was operating at a temperature significantly above its oxidation limit and below its lower transformation temperature of 727 °C (1340 °F) for an extended period of time. Transformation products in the failed region of tube 2 indicated that the failure region experienced a peak temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... sufficient water in the boiler 2 h before start-up. Six hours after start-up, the center portions of two adjacent tubes in the boiling surface ruptured. The pressure and temperature of the steam at the time of failure were reported to be 8.6 MPa (1.25 ksi) and 399 °C or 750 °F (boiling temperature: 300 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... austenitizing time is determined by dividing the total time in the furnace between heating time (the time necessary to bring the part to the austenitizing temperature) and transformation time (the time required to produce the desired microstructural transformation or to complete the desired diffusion process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... prematurely. Tests were conducted to determine the appropriate postweld heat treatment, using a resistance-heating setup employing a 7.5-kV⋅A transformer equipped with digital time controls from 1.0 to 9.9 s and digital heat control from 10 to 99%. Heat-sensitive crayons and a hotwire pyrometer were used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... thermoset with degree of conversion α = 1 Fig. 10 Idealized time-temperature-transformation cure diagram. A plot of the times to gelation and vitrification during isothermal cure versus temperature delineates the regions of four distinct states of matter: liquid, gelled rubber, gelled glass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract U-shaped leaf springs, intended to serve as spacers between oil tank floats and the inner walls of the containers, broke while being fitted, or after a short time in use, in the bend of the U. The springs were made of tempered strip steel of type C 88 with 0.84 % C, bent at room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... over temperature or time Composition, thermal stability, evolved gas analysis Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) Dimensional changes over temperature Coefficient of thermal expansion, material transitions, molded-in stress, chemical compatibility Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) Elastic modulus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) fracture with a concurrent decrease in ductility. That is, there is a minimum ductility at elevated temperature (within the “creep” range) where the fracture mechanism changes from TG to IG fracture with a concurrent loss in ductility. Creep, or time-dependent strain, is a relatively long-term...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) to intergranular (IG) fracture with a concurrent decrease in ductility. That is, there is a minimum ductility at elevated temperature (within the creep range) where the fracture mechanism changes from TG to IG fracture with a concurrent loss in ductility. Creep, or time-dependent strain, is a relatively long...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microstructure that is expected to have intermediate strength and toughness ( Fig. 3a ). Coarse grains of ferrite are observed indicative of low carbon ferrite phases ( Fig. 3a ). Feathery bainite forms just below the nose of the time temperature transformation curve [ 2 ] at intermediate cooling rates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... nuclei is proportional to the available grain boundary area. Larger grained materials shift the nose of the Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) curve to the right, inhibiting pearlite nucleation and promoting martensite formation. Much of the hardenability research has been performed on a moderately...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... creep testing and remaining-life assessment, and pressure vessel time-dependent stress analysis showing the effect of stress relaxation at hot spots. creep curve creep testing elevated-temperature life assessment heater tubes high-temperature components hydrogen attacks remaining-life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... constituents, the general hardness in the region being 250 VDP (3 kg. load). This structural feature was considered to be due, fundamentally, to the rapid heating and cooling that took place at the time of welding; the temperature attained in this region sufficed to austenitise the pearlite grains, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the oxidation front through the material. This phenomenon reduced the time necessary for substantial zirconium diffusion away from the original intermetallic location. The rodlike silver precipitates within the matrix of the banded region ( Fig. 7 ) occur from high-temperature deformation, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., such as polysulfone, may develop cracks over time due to aging in conjunction with stresses. 2 This aging, commonly referred to as physical aging, occurs over an extended period of time, at temperatures below the glass transition, as the polymer undergoes molecular motion in an attempt to achieve an equilibrium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... sustained temperatures of 538 °C (1000 °F) or higher (well above the outlet temperature of 193 °C, or 380 °F). However, the absence of high-temperature transformation phases in the microstructure, such as bainite or martensite, indicates tube wall temperatures were below 732 °C (1350 °F) at the time...