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time-dependent fracture mechanics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... describes the viscoelastic behavior of plastics in their solid state only, from the standpoint of the material deforming without fracturing. The consequences of viscoelasticity on the mechanical properties of plastics are described, especially in terms of time-dependencies, as well as the dependence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of σ y should be two to three times less than that of ρ c ; otherwise, a shear yielding mechanism would be favored ( Ref 8 ). The stress-intensity factor reaches a critical value, termed the critical stress-intensity factor, K Ic , at the fracture stress σ B . The value of K Ic defines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rupture) and resistance to fracture under creep conditions. Fig. 2 Creep crack in a turbine vane. Courtesy of M. Chaudhari, Columbus Metallurgical Services Failures from creep deformation depend on material, time-temperature exposure, loading conditions, component geometry, and environmental...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Graphic representation of creep data showing various ways to plot time-dependent strain in response to constant stress. See text for discussion. Fig. 12 Flexural modulus of engineering plastics at elevated temperatures. PET, polyethylene terephthalate; PBT, polybutylene terephthalate; ABS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the testing rates must be limited. The temperature dependence on the reaction rate of failure can be studied using the Arrhenius equation. In this model, the failure is clearly defined, and many experiments are conducted to measure the time to failure under various temperature conditions. Data can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...., creep rate, stress rupture) and resistance to fracture under creep conditions. Fig. 2 Creep crack in a turbine vane. Courtesy of Mohan Chaudhari, Columbus Metallurgical Services Failures from creep deformation depend on the alloy, the time-temperature exposure, loading conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Mechanics in Polymer Fractography Coating of Plastic Specimens Scanning Electron Microscopy Fractography and Micromechanisms of Fracture Scanning Electron Microscopy Fractography of Particle-Filled Polymers Example of Environmental Stress Cracking Time-Dependent Fractures Example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the specific essential work of fracture (EWF). Adapted from Ref 34 Fig. 5 Energy partitioning according to the yielding concept assuming time-dependent ligament yielding. Adapted from Ref 34 Abstract There are many different types of polymeric materials, ranging from glassy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... strength of the material. Crack extension takes place along the path of least resistance to fracture. The characteristic fracture surface appearance depends on the complex interactions of the prevailing conditions of stress, materials properties, environment, and time. The distinction between the ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of precracked Charpy specimens for polyvinyl chloride Fig. 32 Applicability and limitations of force-based fracture mechanics analysis for high loading rates (impact) Fig. 33 Schematic of the dynamic key curve method Fig. 34 Determination of the loading-rate dependence of time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in polymer composites are time-dependent, reflecting at least in part the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response of the polymer, and can be accompanied at high stress by permanent deformation, crazing, void formation, and shear force localization. Depending on the polymer molecular structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of thermoplastics are used to present the time-dependent behavior for large strains or, rather, viscoelasticity refers to both the time and temperature dependence of mechanical properties. Thus, the sustained stresses in thermoplastics decrease as a function of temperature (T) or time (t). The temperature-dependent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... <xref rid="a0003541-ref3" ref-type="bibr">(Adapted from Ref 3)</xref> Under circumstances in which metals may be regarded as purely elastic, polymers may deform nonelastically; that is, in a viscoelastic fashion. Their stress-strain response is nonlinear with time-dependent (creep) deformation; consequently, their fracture behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... embrittlement or other causes result in fracture under normal loading. The purpose of engineering failure analysis is to identify the root cause of component or system failure and to prevent similar occurrences. Underdesign is just one potential cause of an overload failure, and the time-consuming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0089663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The combination of cyclic loading (thermal fatigue), an aggressive service environment (steam), and internal defects resulted in gradual crack propagation, which was, at times, intergranular-with or without corrosive attack-and, at other times, was transgranular. Casings Casting defects Crack propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... encountered damage mechanism ( Ref 8 ), and over time, two major design philosophies have been employed: safe-life (based on either stress versus life-cycle curves or strain versus life-cycle curves) ( Ref 9 ) and damage tolerant (based on fracture mechanics) ( Ref 9 , 10 , 11 ). Situations in which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... conditions. Pad cratering initiation can lead to strain redistribution in a small area, and the strain gage can capture this irregular change. The captured strain signal can be differentiated with respect to time to generate signals that are more readily observed. The mechanism of AE is similar to SSD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... separates inelastic deformation from plastic deformation is that inelastic deformation is time-independent, while plastic deformation may include both time-independent mechanisms as well as time-dependent mechanisms. The movement of dislocation is primarily driven by shear stresses and may be altered by any...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... times • Verify proper alloy (a) Failure at the time of load application without prior weakening The modes of fracture (overload, fatigue, and creep) cannot be considered independently of the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and crack propagation. The occurrence and appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9