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time proportioning

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Rail Storage: Steel rails for a long term project were imported into Malaysia and stored in the open. A large proportion were placed in one stack 6 m by 6 m by 5 m high. The rails from this and other stacks were used progressively, being taken from the tops of the stacks. After 17 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... between the bounded elastic and viscous component behaviors. In the case of a constant strain applied to a viscoelastic material, the linear elastic solid would experience a stress that is proportional to the imparted constant strain. Therefore, the time dependent strain from Eq 3 , ε(t), would...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... storage. On many claims for which we have been consulted, the sea voyage occupied only a small proportion of the insurance interval. The reason for this is the wide range of time intervals covered by marine policies. These can cover the voyage itself or might extend for long intervals on either side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... was discovered running the entire length. Examination of a section through the pipe containing the defect, showed this to be a scarf-welded pipe, only about half the section of the scarf having been satisfactorily welded together. It was concluded that both pipes had been defective at the time of manufacture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... . The Institute was asked to test them. The steel for the casting in question had been deoxidized in the laddle with 0.29 kg aluminum per ton of raw steel. The casting had been cooled to 300° C in the mold, which took approximately two weeks. Of this time the cooling from 12001 to 900° C, i.e. through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... over a period of time. Within 34 h after testing, one of the pressure vessels blew up ( Fig. 1 ), and within a few days most of the others had failed. Fig. 1 Stress-corrosion failure of an Apollo Ti-6Al-4V reaction control system (RCS) pressure vessel due to nitrogen tetroxide. (a) Failed vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... at the time. About five months later, the HP piston rod of the No. 1 compressor failed in a similar manner. Specimens for microscopic examination were cut from the rod in the region of the failure and from the extreme end that had been situated above the piston and hence not subjected to an appreciable rise...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... ). The dimensions of the hook corresponded closely to those given in B.S.482, the proportions of the trapezoidal section giving a cross-sectional area in excess of the requirements of this specification. The diameters of the machined shank and screwed end, however, were more appropriate to a hook of 12.5 tons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the cracking in the yoke had been present for some time. The fact that cracking had progressed through a considerable proportion of the yoke section before final failure in overload suggests that crack propagation had occurred under relatively low stresses. Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the fracture. Fig. 3 10CrMo9-10 steel, microcavities in triple points Diagnostic Factors: Oxide Thickness and Larson-Miller Parameter Generally speaking, and assuming that the time before fracture, t f , is inversely proportional to constant strain speed, the relation between t f...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of the central regions of all 22 cores and tested at various temperatures on an instrumented impact testing apparatus. Representative SEM photos were taken of the fracture modes of the fractured samples. By instrumenting the hammer on this test device, information regarding load versus time can be obtained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... thermomechanical testing thermoplastic resins viscosity DURING THE PROCESSING OF THERMOPLASTICS, polymer chains are sheared, twisted, distorted, stretched, and subjected to a vast array of flow histories. As a result of time and temperature, the macromolecular network eventually undergoes stress relaxation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... The shaft was polished, the pulley was bored out, and a bushing was inserted, but after indeterminate service, the pulley turning recurred. At this time, the shaft was removed for resurfacing. After belt grinding, the keyway was filled in and the surface of the shaft was built up by gas metal arc welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001576
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... as specified, but it had to be repaired due to wear several times and changed as shown in Fig. 2(b) . This was revealed only after the incident, Immediately the blank die was restored into the original shape. In the meantime, the blade with two circular arcs as shown in Fig. 2(d) was made for trial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fractures. The cross section is not noticeably constricted at the point of fracture. The fractures have regions of coarse conchoidal structure. Such regions diminish the deformability the more, the larger they are in proportion to the total fracture cross section and the less favorably they are located...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... yielding. Subsequently, a comprehensive examination of the internal surface by magnetic crack detection was carried out and only a few short indications were found, these on investigation were shown to be surface folds and laps introduced at the time of manufacture. Figure 1 , is a general view...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ∞ = a ϕ b ( a and b are material-dependent constants). Moisture ingress in polymeric materials usually follows Fickian kinetics, with the amount of moisture absorbed being proportional to time in the early stage of exposure; moisture uptake gradually slows, asymptotically approaching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... increase, the time to rupture for Udimet 500 alloy in the corrosion environment was reduced by approximately 1000 times. Fig. 11 Degradation of rupture for Udimet 500 due to hot corrosion at 705 °C Influence of the Tip Shroud Metallography In gas turbine buckets manufactured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... that the casting was made from a plain-carbon steel containing about 0.25% carbon, and was normalized. At the time of the derailment, the casting had been in service for about seventeen years. The part of the fracture surface which attracted the attention of the railroad's personnel is shown in Figure 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... corrosion crack had initiated at a corrosion pit which, at the time of failure, was quite broad but shallow (10 mm surface length by 0.3 mm deep) ( Fig. 1 ). Extensive corrosion in the form of shallow pits was observed in the forward portion of the beam in the vicinity of the fracture and particularly...