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through hardening

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Unetched metallographic cross section through hardened steel roller test specimen with sliding plus rolling contact (sliding to left and rolling to right). Fatigue cracks initiate at surface. Source: Ref 11 More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 Cross sections of through- and case-hardened metallurgies. In practice, depending on the alloy, the through-hardened tooth hardness may vary slightly across the section. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... at the acute-angle intersections of three mounting holes with the root fillets of three teeth was revealed by examination of gear. Cracks at the intersections of the remaining three mounting holes and the adjacent tooth-root fillets were revealed by magnetic-particle inspection. Through hardening at the acute...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... through hardening and heat treatment does not present any serious difficulty. Care is still required in processing to avoid decarburization. In an application of track pins for tracked vehicles, bars about 22 mm diam were required in heat treated and centerless-ground condition prior to induction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The customer had specified a 2 mm case depth and a hardness of at least HRC 55 at a depth of 1.5 mm. An etched cross section of the cracked end showed that the case layer had a depth of 2.3 mm, so that the sleeve was almost through-hardened at the flat ends. While the core material with the full wall thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of alternative solutions were identified and then validated based on chemical analysis, endurance and hardness tests, and microstructural examination. The investigation revealed that carbonitriding can effectively eliminate the type of failure encountered because it prevents through hardening of the bearing cup...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... surface with discoloration and coating removal. The substrate material was E52100 which was through-hardened to HRC 55-60. The slippers that were in contact with the coated wobbler surface were made of AISI 06 material. A synthetic oil was used as the hydraulic fluid in the application. The failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... be improved by through hardening or induction surface hardening of the teeth. Catastrophic wear Chain drives Chemical processing industry Shafts (power) UNS G10200 UNS G10450 1020 1045 (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear Background Replacement sprockets ( Fig. 1 ) installed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... 5350 (AISI type 410) stainless steel that was through-hardened to 26 to 32 HRC and passivated, was shown to be cracked. The crack initiated at the sharp corner of the elongated milled slot and propagated across to the outer wall. The sections around the crack were spread about 30 deg apart, showing...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 48 Carburized 4817 steel spiral bevel gear. The gear broke from fatigue at acute-angle intersections of mounting holes and tooth-root fillets as a result of through hardening. Dimensions given in inches More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... and the impact properties of the bolt would be improved by tempering after through hardening. Corrective Measures The bolts were through hardened and tempered to the hardness range of 375 to 430 HB. The thimbles were heat treated to a similar microstructure and the same hardness range as those of the bolt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Consequently, pinions are usually made from a harder and more wear-resistant material. With case-hardened gears, the pinions are typically one or two Rockwell C points higher than the gears. With through-hardened gears, it is common to use a differential of ten Rockwell C points; however, many large gear sets...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
.... The metallographer should bear in mind that with this technique he can produce local changes in the microstructure through hardening or annealing, particularly in hardened specimens, not only at the point of the engraver but also, if the specimen is badly earthed, on the reverse side. Selected Reference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... location of fracture in latch tip, and detail showing original and improved designs of latch tip. Dimensions given in inches. (b) Fractograph of a typical fracture surface showing brittle appearance; note fine-grain appearance of the hardened case (at right). 9x. (c) Micrograph of a section through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... be observed that pointed to a hardening of the material next to the seam. A longitudinal section through the fracture origin after various etches showed the structure presented in Figs. 1 and 2 . A low alloy additive was used for welding that was alloyed in contact with the spindle to such an extent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... alternative to 1045 steel. The pinion was annealed before flame or induction hardening of the teeth to a surface hardness of 363 HRB and a core hardness of 197 HRB. The broken pinion had a tooth which had failed by fatigue fracture through the tooth root because of the low strength from incomplete surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation Fracture occurred through the relatively thin wall of the seat, between circular holes in a cylindrical barrel. Secondary cracks were evident adjacent to the fractures in every failed ligament region. The fracture surfaces visually had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...-hardened 1151 steel rotor shaft in which a spline fractured because of a seam. Top left: Configuration and dimensions (given in inches). Section A-A: Micrographs of section through broken spline, showing shape of fracture (arrow A), root of seam (arrow B), and decarburized surface. Sections B-B and C-C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... case hardened to a depth of 0.8 to 0.9 mm ( Figs. 2 and 3 ). Fig. 2 Longitudinal section through weld, etch: copper ammonium chloride solution according to Heyn. 1 × Fig. 3 Peripheral structure of a site free of wear, longitudinal section, etch: Picral. 100 × The peripheral...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... not affect strength properties or hardenability. A cross-sectional specimen about 9.5 mm ( 3 8 in.) thick was taken through the center of each sample; after cutting, both surfaces of each specimen were ground smooth. Hardness of the raceway of the outer ring was 29.8 to 11.7 HRC. A horizontal...