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three-roll forming

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and gas analysis, mechanical property testing, stereomicroscopy, and metallographic examination. The fire sleeves are fabricated from 3-mm thick plate made of Incoloy 800 rolled into 540-mm diam sections welded along the seam. Three such sections are joined together by circumferential welds to form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A large pressure vessel designed for use in an ammonia plant failed during hydrostatic testing. It was fabricated from ten Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel plates which were rolled and welded to form ten cylindrical shell sections and three forgings of similar composition. The fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of thermal expansion, and high-temperature capability are properties also suited to rolling-element materials. Silicon nitride has been found to have a good combination of properties suitable for these applications. Research over the past three decades on structure, quality control, and manufacturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... thread rolling. The result of this channeling of dislocations is a faceted fracture appearance as observed in some locations on the shear bands of the fractured pins ( Figure 3 ). The shear bands form during the rolling of the pin threads. Titanium alloys are known to have a high propensity for shear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... rather of a number of components. Two 4- 1 2 in. width × 2- 5 8 in. thickness carbon steel bars cut from rolled plate are welded to the scroll shaft approximately 70° from each other and at slightly different elevations. Three curved concentric steel stiffeners are welded to the bars...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., primary carbonitrides For all samples creep damage was observed in the form of non-aligned voids. Near surface voids were also observed, indicating likely chromium depletion. No nitride needles or plates were observed to be present. A hardness profile was determined for the roll samples 1 D...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... An internal crack originating at an oxide-type inclusion below the surface at the pitchline. A pit is being formed. Nital etch. 90× The initiation of pitting is mostly confined to three areas along the profile of a gear tooth. First, the pitchline is the only area of line contact that receives pure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Rolling-contact fatigue (RCF) is a common failure mode in components subjected to rolling or rolling-sliding contact. This article provides a basic understanding of RCF and a broad overview of materials and manufacturing techniques commonly used in industry to improve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the hardness near the surface to be of the order of 242–250, falling to 180 at mid-width, i.e. there was a hardness gradient through the plate that almost certainly developed at the time when it was rolled to cylindrical form. Similar tests on the section through the fish-plate showed values of the order...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... of an elongated form and, although fairly numerous, were not excessive in total amount, a typical zone is illustrated in Figure 6 . The etched micro-structure, as depicted in Figure 7 , was typical of a low carbon rolled plate having the usual banded appearance. Fig. 5 Photograph of sulphur print...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Deep-groove ball bearing design; typically 3000 rpm; four bearings on a single center shaft; maximum contact stress, 2.9 GPa (420 ksi); accelerometers on the outer housing monitor failure Ref 26 (j) Rolling four-ball testing apparatus Top ball drives three lower balls in a tetragonal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... attaching the stainless steel skirt to the basket rim and also in the region of the vertical weld which was made when the skirt was formed into a cone. Stress-corrosion cracking of the skirt material, which contained residual stresses due to cold-rolling, had been caused by the presence of sodium chloride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract The lower receiver of the M16 rifle is an anodized forging of aluminum alloy 7075-T6. Degradation of the receivers was observed after three years of service in a hot, humid atmosphere. The affected areas were those in frequent contact with the user's hands...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... is shown in Fig. 1 . The Type 304 cold rolled profile wire had a thickness of 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) tapering to 0.8 mm (0.032 in.) at the trailing edge and a 6.4 mm (0.250 in.) width. A minimum tensile strength of 1100 MPa (160 ksi) was specified. Both an inner and an outer annular screen were used to form...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or a lamination in the steel, (2) foreign objects, such as parts of rolls or rolling equipment, being pushed into the steel during hot rolling, or (3) hot tears that form, particularly during piercing and rolling of relatively thin-wall large-diameter seamless pipe. All of these problems can be controlled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes three design-life methods or philosophies of fatigue, namely, infinite-life, finite-life, and damage tolerant. It outlines the three stages in the process of fatigue fracture: the initial fatigue damage leading to crack initiation, progressive cyclic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... machine. Cracking of a major order in races and rolling elements takes several forms and is due to a number of causes. Although it can result from fatigue, the mechanism differs from the very localised fatigue cracking which causes pitting and flaking. Circumferential cracks which develop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from “A” can form a separate body, known as a wear particle. Adhesion usually starts the wear process in sliding and fretting wear. There is the potential for adhesive interaction in rolling wear, because pure rolling only occurs in a small portion of a rolling contact. Pure rolling contact typically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The right front spring hanger on a dual rear axle of the tractor of a tractor-trailer combination failed, causing the vehicle to roll-over. The hanger was made from malleable cast iron that had been heat treated to produce a decarburized surface layer and a pearlitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in Figure 2 . Fig. 1 The APS storage ring vacuum chamber. Three small round cooling holes are seen here. Fig. 2 Transition assemblies made from 3003 aluminum roll-bonded to stainless steel (top). SEM and x-ray EDS was used to survey the corrosion regions ( Figs. 3 and 4 ). Fig...