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thin-wall gray iron castings

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the top flange of casting 1. Tensile strength was determined to be 205 MPa (29.8 ksi), which is characteristic of a class 30B gray iron casting with a wall thickness of 13 mm ( 1 2 in.). Two separate nonmetallurgical conditions caused failures. A thin section was observed at one fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... cylinder block. (a) Section from the thick-wall part. (b) Section from the thin-wall part. (c) Thin-wall part of reinforced case. All etched in picral. Original magnification of all: 100×. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 16 Failed gray iron crankcase. (a) Fragments of crankcase. (b) Fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... locations on casting exterior Soft or insufficient ramming, mold-wall movement F 126 Thin casting walls over general area, especially on horizontal surfaces Distorted casting F 200: Casting shape incorrect overall or in certain locations F 210: Pattern incorrect F 211 Casting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0048804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Fig. 2 Both sides of a journal-to-head failure in a cast iron paper-roll dryer. (a) Bottom of failed dryer. (b) The failed bolted-on head When analyzing one of these failures, the analyst should be aware of the following characteristics of thin-wall cast iron structures: Castings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... steel for centrifugal casting of gray- and ductile-iron pipe that failed because of localized overheating. The failure was caused by splashing of molten metal at the spigot end. Subsequent overheating resulted in mold-wall spalling and scoring, details of which are shown in the photographs. Dimensions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... The fracture was promoted by the formation of undercooled microstructure of low strength in the thin-walled part. Similar damage appeared in a cylinder head, in which case, the cracks were promoted by a supercooled structure. Castings Cylinder heads Engine blocks Shrinkage Stresses Gray iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of a part of the fracture plane indicated that the crack originated in the thin-walled part. This crack propagation led to the conclusion that shrinkage stresses were the cause of the cracks, because the adjoining thick-and thin-walled cast parts freeze and shrink at different times. A differential...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... ferritic in these regions ( fig. 3 ). This supercooled structure imparts only low strength to the iron, but should not affect the corrosion resistance. Fig. 2 Core structure: Etch: Picral. 500 × Thick-walled section. Fig. 3 Core structure: Etch: Picral. 500 × Thin-walled section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to oleum or sulfuric acid under high temperatures and internal pressure. As the interior wall surfaces thinned or corroded, the stresses in the valve increased, particularly at the valve body-to-flange juncture. The appearance of sulfate deposits at points A and B ( Fig. 4 ) in the interior wall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the parts with poor wear resistance and a tendency to gall. This, of course, also encompasses the opposite surface. The granular graphite in a ferritic matrix is formed by supercooling of the melt during solidification. It appears, therefore, in thin-walled places during fast cooling or in the vicinity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examination revealed pitting corrosion on the inner surface of the spar cavity. Fig. 6 Fatigue cracking of a helicopter tail rotor blade. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the blade showing lead wool ballast in contact with the 2014-T652 aluminum spar bore cavity wall at the failure origin ∼13×. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... was broken. Microscopic examination revealed pitting corrosion on the inner surface of the spar cavity. Fig. 6 Fatigue cracking of a helicopter tail rotor blade. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the blade showing lead wool ballast in contact with the 2014-T652 aluminum spar bore cavity wall...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (distortion) of the stainless steel piping and further crack penetration into the piping wall. The cracks continued to propagate during service from stresses induced in the piping. In another case, a transfer line carrying 73% sodium hydroxide developed a leak at a weld joining a cast Monel coupling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... to the extensive internal “notching” provided by the crack-like voids, which may be considered similar in their effect on ductility to the graphite flakes in gray cast iron. The cause of the embrittlement, then, is not so much the absorption of hydrogen as the formation of the crack-like voids. Evidence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... steel piping and further crack penetration into the piping wall. The cracks continued to propagate during service from stresses induced in the piping. In another case, a transfer line carrying 73% sodium hydroxide developed a leak at a weld joining a cast alloy 400 coupling to wrought alloy 400 pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Hydrogen damage may occur from the generation of atomic hydrogen during rapid corrosion of the waterside tube surface, although it may occur with little or no apparent wall thinning. The atomic hydrogen diffuses into the tube steel, where it reacts with tube carbides (Fe 3 C) to form gaseous methane (CH 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by carburization. Investigation Fracture occurred through the relatively thin wall of the seat, between circular holes in a cylindrical barrel. Secondary cracks were evident adjacent to the fractures in every failed ligament region. The fracture surfaces visually had the faceted or “crystalline” appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... While this work is underway, the analyst continues macroscopic examination of the fracture features by opening tight cracks (when present). Because quench cracking is a very common cause of failures, the fracture surfaces should always be checked for temper color. Scale on a crack wall would indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to the edge, also contributed to cracking. Temper color was observed on the crack walls. Fig. 4 Fixture made from AISI O1 tool steel that cracked during oil quenching. This design is poor for liquid quenching. A nick in the fillet region helped to initiate cracking. Original magnification: 0.75...