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thin-film lubrication

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that the discoloration on the cylinder was associated with metal oxidation products coated with a thin oil film. One of the recommendations was to plate the OD of the cylinder with hard chromium to increase its resistance to erosion. Another recommendation was to reduce the amounts of water contamination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... usually operate with Λ near 1 and even less. The consequence of operating with Λ < 1, as in the case of overload or where the viscosity of the lubricant is low because of overheating, is that the surface topographical features (bumps) begin to interact through a very thin local fluid film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in stages, beginning with a hen-track pattern on the bearing surface. As fatigue progresses, the soft metal separates from the hard backing ( Fig. 7 ). This may occur even though lubrication is adequate, but operation with very thin fluid films could cause heating and weakening of the bearing material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... magnetic coating is then sputtered by physical vapor deposition process or electrolytically or electroless deposited. In order to protect this magnetic film, which stores the data, a thin carbon film is sputtered. The carbon film acts both as a protective film and lubricant. The carbon overcoat, in its...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 17 Microspalling (peeling) on a tapered-roller bearing caused by a thin lubricant film compared to the composite surface roughness. (a) Cup showing fatigue on the peaks of surface texture. (b) Cone showing fatigue on the peaks of surface texture. (c) Roller with a general spalled area More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mechanics fracture modes fracture surface lubricants macroscopic examination mechanical testing microscopic examination nondestructive inspection sampling simulated-service testing stress analysis wear failure ANALYZING the inevitable failures that occur during testing, manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... self-lubricating materials slide against another surface, often a harder metal material, they deposit a transfer film, a thin layer of polymer that is attached to the countersurface ( Fig. 5 ). Transfer films allow polymers and polymer composites to achieve ultra-low wear rates (10 −7 to 10 −9 mm 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... covered with a thin, adherent film of corrosion product that could not he removed. Therefore, scanning electron microscopy was not conducted. Metallography The microstructure consisted of nodular pearlite plus equiaxed ferrite, a typical structure for AISI 1045 steel in the normalized and tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of material from the surface of a bearing race depends on the lubricant viscosity and/or film thickness. Various theories have been proposed that attribute the spalling to hydrostatic pressure of the lubricant being forced into surface cracks to propagate them. Another theory states that the propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; in extreme cases, sliding motion can be prevented by a very high coefficient of friction or a combination of material transfer and adhesion. Metals and alloys are particularly prone to adhesive wear, with the majority of adhesive wear failures being related to the breakdown of the lubrication film...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in contact with ( Ref 40 ). In an effort to increase the life of seals, a number of studies have been carried out to estimate the film thickness of the lubricant for elastomer pressed against a metal ( Ref 41 , 42 , 43 ). The other example of the use of polymers in a lubricating environment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the lubrication regime is either boundary or mixed). However, the full film lubrication generally seen in rolling-element bearings should prevent such damage, except at the start/stop of rolling motion. Similarly, plastic flow and bulk failure depend on the bulk thermal and mechanical properties of the bearing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... containing three lubricants and short glass fibers, the film transfer was not as coherent and thin ( Fig. 15b ), as in the earlier case, and μ was little higher. Various wear failure mechanisms observed on the worn surfaces of composites during scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies are shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of Rolling-Element Bearings” in Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology , Volume 18 of ASM Handbook , 2017, which specifically covers the question of the lubrication function itself (elastohydrodynamic lubrication and the estimation of the minimum film thickness required to lubricate the contact...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in both normal and compound impact contacts. Wear rates are low as the contacting surfaces are separated by oxide films, which tend to have better lubricating properties than bare metal surfaces. Wear debris is generally fine and predominantly made up of metal oxide. Oxidative wear is particularly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK)-matrix composite with 20% (by volume) PTFE particulates showed that solid-state lubricant PTFE particulates in the PEEK matrix decreased the PTFE/PEEK composite friction coefficient and wear rate appreciably by continuous formation of PTFE transfer films over the contact surface between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., microcracking, and microcutting; 2, sliding and wear thinning of fibers; 3, interfacial separation of fiber and matrix; 4, fiber cracking; 5, back-transferred polymer or organic fibers (film and layered wear debris) showing delamination and cracking; 6, metallic and wear debris transferred from the counterface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-correction method allows one to obtain useful chemical-state information from insulating samples. Common materials analyzed by XPS include metals, lubricants, semiconductors, metal oxides, glasses, ceramics, catalysts, plastics/polymers, coatings/thin films, and paper. Because the technique is so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... cracks. The layer of oxidized oil indicates the failure began long ago. A close-up view of another section of the worm shows the relatively fine macropitting that occurred where the lubricant film was not adequate ( Fig. 20 ). The layer of oxidized oil on the worm raised suspicions about...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and can be found in both normal and compound-impact contacts. Wear rates are low because the contacting surfaces are separated by oxide films, which tend to have better lubricating properties than bare metal surfaces. Wear debris is generally fine and predominantly made up of metal oxide. Oxidative wear...