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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Three radiant heating element tubes from an aluminum holding furnace failed after a few months of service. One side of each of the tubes had disintegrated, leaving large holes and thinned cross sections. Microstructural analysis showed that the surface of the tube had been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., localized thinning is observed in the metal adjacent to the split. In some sheet metals, especially those with higher strength, the amount of time or strain between a neck and a fracture can be very small. Hands-on and virtual analytical techniques are available and effective in understanding both...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the intergranular cracks. The pipe surfaces were found to contain spatters of the zinc-rich primer, and when welding was performed through spattered regions, LMIE cracks formed adjacent to the weld passes. Stainless Steel and Copper In Ref 24 , heat-affected zone cracking at butt welds in thin sheets...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
....2006.12.163 3. Locker S.A. , Yun M. , Hunt J.D. et al. , Micro- and macrodefects in thin sheet twin-roll cast aluminum alloys . Mater. Charact . 37 , 301 – 310 ( 1996 ) 10.1016/S1044-5803(97)80019-8 4. Chu Q. , Zhang M. , Li J. , Failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Embrittlement by Liquid and Solid Metal , Kamdar M.H. , Ed., TMS/AIME 24. Holbert R.K. Jr. , Dobbins A.G. , and Bennett R.K. Jr. , Copper Contamination Cracking in Thin Stainless Steel Sheet , Weld. J. , Aug 1987 , p 38 25. McDonalt M.M. Corrosion of Brazed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... of the steel beneath this second layer and became progressively less observable nearer the center of the sheet. The region of observable penetration was about 0.075 mm (0.003 in.) thick, but this phase probably extended to the center of the sheets as a thin band that could not be resolved by optical microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the reporting of fastener test failures, a failure-identification code has been established for reporting the failure of each fastener resulting from tests under MIL-STD-1312. Failures of threaded and blind fasteners and of fastened sheet covered by this identification code are illustrated in Fig. 1 . Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract Two slitting saw blades were delivered for the purpose of determining the cause of damage. One had cracked while the other one came from a prior sheet delivery, that had less tendency to crack formation according to the manufacturer. The blades were supposed to have been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and nonrubbed material. E, Very thin rubbed ridge along edge of specimen. F, Location for examination at higher magnification in Fig. 9 . G, Location for examination at higher magnification in Fig. 9 . T, Thread imprints at edge of bolt hole. Fig. 8 (a) Microstructure of galvanized sheet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Several nickel-base superalloy (UNS N06600) welded heat-exchanger tubes used in processing black liquor in a kraft paper mill failed prematurely. Leaking occurred through the tube walls at levels near the bottom tube sheet. The tubes had been installed as replacements for type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and cracked nuts. (b) Typical fracture surface. (c) Electron fractograph showing brittle intergranular failure Fig. 17 Five basic types of rivets used to fasten assembled products Fig. 18 Schematic of buckling failure of a thin sheet in a riveted joint. Countersinking the top sheet formed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... large amounts of sodium, calcium, potassium, aluminum, and sulfur, alkali, alkali earth, and other contaminants that completely permeated even the thin oxides on the fracture surfaces. Additional investigation of the purity of the steam itself as reported by the power plant showed that corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... combustion gases, steam, or water to gases, vapors, or liquids of various types. Heat exchangers are of tube, plate, or sheet construction. Tubular heat exchangers are generally used for large fluid systems, whereas heat exchangers of plate or sheet construction are often preferred for smaller fluid streams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of tensile stress is related to the rupture of protective films during both initiation and propagation of cracks. These films may be tarnish films, such as those on brasses; thin oxide/hydroxide films; films richer in the more noble element of an alloy, such as a copper-gold alloy; or other protective films...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and longitudinally. They contained long drawn-out, thin sulfidic and oxidic inclusions as is customary with sheet and strip. The cracks propagated from these and then followed along the stress lines jumping from one slag streak to the next ( Figs. 4 , 5 , 6 ). Fig. 4 Longitudinal section, unetched. Small...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of these techniques, the types of data produced from each, and some typical applications. The article explains the strengths of AES, XPS, and TOF-SIMS based on data obtained from the surface of a slightly corroded stainless steel sheet. Auger electron spectroscopy chemical characterization stainless steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... propagation, as in PP ( Fig. 12 ) or in PS ( Fig. 13 ). It is important to note that PP is a semicrystalline polymer that usually deforms by yielding and recrystallizing under monotonic loading. The transformation at the crack tip may appear as a yielded zone, as in thin PC sheet material ( Fig. 14 ). A pair...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and scabs. The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A low-carbon steel (St35.8) tube in a phthalic anhydride reactor system failed. Visual and stereomicroscopic examination of fracture surfaces revealed heavy oxide/deposits on the outer surface of the tube, tube wall thinning in the area of the fracture, and discolorations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., there is evidence of plastic deformation and failure by microvoid coalescence (MVC) ductile tearing. However, exceptions to this fracture progression mode have been reported. One is formation of a specimen-scale shear band (sometimes associated with void sheet formation at the microscale). One set of circumstances...