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thin film

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the nickel-phosphorus side of the clad bimetal onto an epoxy film, so that the end product contained nickel-phosphorus sandwiched between copper and epoxy, with a chromate conversion layer on the epoxy side of the nickel-phosphorus. Peel testing showed abnormally low adhesion strength for the bad batch...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... showed that the discoloration on the cylinder was associated with metal oxidation products coated with a thin oil film. One of the recommendations was to plate the OD of the cylinder with hard chromium to increase its resistance to erosion. Another recommendation was to reduce the amounts of water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to be associated with the surfaces of the titanium particles in the pyrotechnic by nuclear magnetic resonance. It was proposed that the chlorine-containing residue combined with the water from the pyrotechnic to form a thin aqueous film corroding the bridgewire and pins. A new cleaning procedure was implemented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with a magnetic material for the purpose of recording or reading at a high speed the data stored The magnetic coating on the disk can consist of small particles, called paniculate media, or of a continuous thin film. For higher storage density the particles are of submicron size and densely packed. They are held...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-correction method allows one to obtain useful chemical-state information from insulating samples. Common materials analyzed by XPS include metals, lubricants, semiconductors, metal oxides, glasses, ceramics, catalysts, plastics/polymers, coatings/thin films, and paper. Because the technique is so...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., plastics/polymers, coatings/thin films, and paper. Because the technique is so flexible in its sample-handling capabilities, the industries served by XPS are quite varied. Application areas include bond pads, paint and other thin-film adhesion problems, cleanliness concerns, corrosion analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that is crucial to understanding the failure cause and sequence. Auger analysis has proved to be the most useful in this regard because it can detect thin-film residues, which may include traces of the stress-corrosion environment, and because it has high spatial resolution for documenting the fractographic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lubrication is adequate, but operation with very thin fluid films could cause heating and weakening of the bearing material. The fatigue limit of engine bearings is a major topic. The performance of such bearings in service is very difficult to quantify, but there are practical guidelines for selecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... personal car engine is examined ( Fig. 1 ). The screw fracture surface was well preserved by a thin film of oil and dirt. In this case, the method of failure, mechanism, and cause of damage can be examined and determined using fracture surface analysis. 2 , 3 For this method to be applicable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and 11 . The surface composition of the thin film on the facet ( Fig. 12 ) was identified by Auger spectroscopy and included boron–nitrogen–carbon–iron and a small amount of oxygen. Auger surface analyses of five areas ( Table 3 ) on the fatigue crack initiation (FCI) facet showed variations in amounts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as a thin film at the top of the liquid in the tanks. Concluding Remarks Selected References Selected References • Materials Characterization , vol. 10 , Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , American Society for Metals , Metals Park, OH , 1986 • Newman J.G. , Chemical Characterization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... melt and possibly be squeezed out from the sides. There are three solutions to improve effective heat transfer and avoid thermal problems. One is to operate the bearing with a low contact pressure and at a low speed. The second is to lay a thin film of polymer on a metal backing to increase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... restored. A boiler has, in fact been described as consisting essentially of a thin film of magnetite supported by steel tubes. Most readers will be aware that, after the acid cleaning of boilers, either before commissioning or in service, a special conditioning treatment is applied to produce a uniform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., e.g. for copper and oxidized cadmium, but are often not obvious even using high-resolution SEM/EDS. The films are also too thin to be apparent within secondary cracks on metallographic sections. Very thin embrittling-metal films can, however, be detected using surface-sensitive techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In addition, corrosion product films and other changes in surface composition can also occur in some environments, and so exposure time is important, too. With certain exceptions, the galvanic series in seawater is broadly applicable in other natural waters and in uncontaminated atmospheres. Bodily fluids...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... preparation (mill scale, coatings surface finish, etc.), environmental composition (trace contaminants, dissolved gases, etc.), temperature, flow rate, solution concentration, and degree of agitation or aeration. In addition, corrosion product films and other changes in surface composition can also occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of material from the surface of a bearing race depends on the lubricant viscosity and/or film thickness. Various theories have been proposed that attribute the spalling to hydrostatic pressure of the lubricant being forced into surface cracks to propagate them. Another theory states that the propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or fabric; 3, short fibers. Source: Ref 2 Apart from these factors, the most important wear-controlling factor in the case of a polymer composite is the efficiency of interaction of the polymer and filler with the counterface. If the interaction reinforces the thin-film transfer efficiency...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surfaces separated by an air or oil gap. This can lead to the formation of bluish surface films on a steel surface such as a ball or roller bearing track or rolling member, or it may induce overall heating and softening of the metal if the current is large and sustained, which leaves a thin, dark oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... significantly as the depth of penetration increases. This is illustrated in Fig. 27(a) , from which it may be observed that the measurement of the response is for the combination of film and substrate for thin films or large loads. Although analytical methods have been developed to compensate...