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thermodynamics

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract The failure of a boiler operating at 540 °C and 9.4 MPa was investigated by examining material samples from the near-failure region and by thermodynamic analysis. A scanning Auger microprobe, SEM, and commercial thermodynamic software codes were used in the investigation. Results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... flux. The embrittlement was shown to be caused by the flow of corrosion generated hydrogen which converted the cementite to methane which nucleated voids in the steel. A thermodynamic estimate indicated that a small amount of chromium would stabilize the carbides against decomposition by hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and x-ray microanalysis in conjunction with dimensional analysis, phase diagrams and thermodynamics considerations were employed to evaluate the various hypotheses. All evidence pointed to an oxide mass in the area where the hole developed, likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... spectroscopy Oxide scales Thermodynamics Incoloy 800H UNS N08800 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Introduction After 9 years in service the transfer line of an ethane-cracking furnace developed a leak during decoking of the furnace tubes. The purpose of the furnace is to heat saturate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction to occur, using the appropriate thermodynamic calculations. This should be done in two steps: Verify the available thermodynamic data for the thermal stability of each constituent. Make the appropriate thermodynamic calculations to estimate the free enthalpy variations (Δ G ) r , for all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... A similar transition has been noted to occur when the sufficient thermodynamic condition for crack instability is fulfilled. The major axis of the ellipse increases faster than the minor axis until no more striations are observed and ultimate failure results in large-scale yielding (about 50%) of the pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... gradually approach thermodynamic equilibrium. The approach to equilibrium can lead to drastic or sometimes subtle changes in physical properties. Although aging is often characterized by monitoring changes in excess enthalpy and entropy, these measurements do not necessarily directly correlate with changes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... value dictated by thermodynamics. This value can be achieved in a recirculating system easier than in a nonrecirculating one, as in this study. In this system, the condition could occur only when the system was not in operation and stagnant condition was present or during operation but stagnant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or strain amplitude). From a thermodynamic point of view ( Ref 39 ), part of the mechanical work done during cyclic loading is spent on irreversible molecular processes ( Ref 40 ), leading to microscopic deformations such as crazes, shear bands, voids, and microcracks. The other part of the mechanical work...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... are present in almost any fuel [ 2 , 5 ]: (Eq 1) oxygen + sulfur + sodium = sodium sulfate from air from fuel and / or sea salt On a thermodynamic basis, sodium chloride is unstable in the presence of even small concentrations of sulfur in an oxidizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of 379 to 282 °C (714 to 540 °F), the thermodynamically stable phase is different and has a volume about 3 to 4% higher than the high-temperature phase. The transformation kinetics are slow, so that after quenching during the glass tempering process, any nickel sulfide inclusion is still in the high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... locations are consistent. The steam path through the turbine is the thread that ties the pieces together. The thermodynamics and gas dynamics describing the flow of the steam should agree with the evidence found on the blades. An important part of an internal examination is a metallurgical examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...). It is significant that in cases involving no attack of a plastic by an active ion, the presence of a dissolved ion may act to diminish the amount and effects of water absorption. Water absorption is an osmotic phenomenon which is governed by the thermodynamic activity of water either in solution or in the vapor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to temperatures of around 430 °C or above. Despite the favorable thermodynamic driving force, the reaction is rarely observed in modern steels as the kinetics of the transformation are slow, and steels containing over 0.7% Cr by weight are considered immune to this reaction. The spheroidization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and treated compatible coatings to avoid corrosion and hydrogen evolution at the dissimilar metal junctions. Applications Commercial refrigeration equipment cools a system below the temperature of its surroundings using a closed-circuit vapor-compression thermodynamic cycle, wherein the cooling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... temperatures may lead to thermal fatigue [ 5 ]. Once a thermodynamically stable oxide layer is formed on the surface, a principal means of damage occurs through thermally induced stresses that cause cracking and spalling of oxide scales [ 6 , 7 ]. Further new oxide layers are formed by diffusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... under operating conditions, since the high operating temperatures provide the activation energy required for more thermodynamically favorable microstructures. Exposure to elevated temperatures for extended time periods can lead to several microstructural changes in metallic materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... York , p. 197 ( 1973 ). 17. Meier G. H. , Birks N. , Pettit F. S. and Giggins C. S. , “Thermodynamics Analyses of the High Temperature Corrosion of Alloys in Gases Containing More Than One Reactant” , High Temperature Corrosion , National Association of Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... The efficiency of a power-generation plant is governed by a modified Rankine steam cycle, where thermodynamic efficiency increases with increasing temperature and pressure of the superheated steam entering the turbine. It is possible to further increase the mean temperature of the heat addition by taking back...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (glassy state) and above which the polymeric material transitions to a viscous or rubbery state. The T g is also a measure of the onset of long-range molecular motion in the polymeric material. Because the transition from glass to rubber is not a thermodynamic transition but rather a manifestation...