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thermodynamic properties

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... gradually approach thermodynamic equilibrium. The approach to equilibrium can lead to drastic or sometimes subtle changes in physical properties. Although aging is often characterized by monitoring changes in excess enthalpy and entropy, these measurements do not necessarily directly correlate with changes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...), THERMO-CALC thermodynamic software, and other techniques to analyze the failure. Experimental Methods The chemical composition of the steam chest material is shown in Table 1 . The mechanical properties of samples machined from the steam chest were measured at room and elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 538 °C (1000 °F).” Nowadays, refractories are made of not only oxides and nonoxide compounds (carbides, nitrides, and carbons), but also of metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials and resins. It explains how absorbed moisture affects a wide range of properties, including glass transition temperature, flexural and shear modulus,creep, stress relaxation, swelling, tensile and yield strength, and fatigue cracking. It provides relevant data on common polymers, resins, and fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to ultraviolet light, may even change the T g of a polymer over time. Methods of Determining <italic>T</italic><sub>g</sub> As previously noted, T g is not an inherently thermodynamic property; therefore, the numerical value depends in part on the test method. There are several different...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... spectroscopy Oxide scales Thermodynamics Incoloy 800H UNS N08800 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Introduction After 9 years in service the transfer line of an ethane-cracking furnace developed a leak during decoking of the furnace tubes. The purpose of the furnace is to heat saturate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Property Council (MPC) Omega method ( Ref 28 – 30 ), which can be regarded mathematically as a special case of the Kachanov-Rabotnov model. The Kachanov-Rabotnov model is formulated under the assumption that creep damage results from an effective loss in material cross section due to internal voids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... criterion for fatigue resistance in engineering plastics. For example, ASTM D 7774, “Standard Test Method for Flexural Fatigue Properties of Plastics,” specifies repeated and reversed flexural stress (fatigue) as a standard methodology. Different loading conditions and specimen geometries have been used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analysis, mechanical property testing, stereomicroscopy, and metallographic examination. The fire sleeves are fabricated from 3-mm thick plate made of Incoloy 800 rolled into 540-mm diam sections welded along the seam. Three such sections are joined together by circumferential welds to form a single 2.8 m...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... flux. The embrittlement was shown to be caused by the flow of corrosion generated hydrogen which converted the cementite to methane which nucleated voids in the steel. A thermodynamic estimate indicated that a small amount of chromium would stabilize the carbides against decomposition by hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article describes the viscoelastic behavior of plastics in their solid state only, from the standpoint of the material deforming without fracturing. The consequences of viscoelasticity on the mechanical properties of plastics are described, especially in terms of time-dependencies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Accelerated life testing and aging methodologies are increasingly being used to generate engineering data for determining material property degradation and service life (or fitness for purpose) of plastic materials for hostile service conditions. This article presents an overview...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the glass fracture surfaces. At each of the four origins, the only elements detected were nickel and sulfur in similar amounts, indicating that the inclusions at fracture origins were composed of nickel sulfide. Mechanical Properties The fracture toughness ( K Ic ) of soda-lime glass is reported...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This introductory article describes the various aspects of chemical structure that are important to an understanding of polymer properties and thus their eventual effect on the end-use performance of engineering plastics. The polymers covered include hydrocarbon polymers, carbon-chain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... effect on material properties and structures. In general, the more randomly distributed the nodules, the less effect they have on structural integrity. In the cases examined, the nodules were found to be organized in planar arrays, indicating they might have an effect on material properties. Closer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and treated compatible coatings to avoid corrosion and hydrogen evolution at the dissimilar metal junctions. Applications Commercial refrigeration equipment cools a system below the temperature of its surroundings using a closed-circuit vapor-compression thermodynamic cycle, wherein the cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... temperatures. Aromatic rings are also thermodynamically more stable than singly-bonded aliphatic structures, which fortunately improves the thermooxidative stability of the resin. Properties of selected commodity and engineering plastics Table 1 Properties of selected commodity and engineering plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... on the component but instead act in concert to determine the performance properties of a plastic component. This is represented graphically in Fig. 2 ( Ref 1 ). Fig. 2 Graphical representation of the four factors influencing plastic part performance The principal differences between how failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the performance properties of a plastic component. This is represented graphically in Fig. 2 ( Ref 1 ). Fig. 2 Graphical representation of the four factors influencing plastic part performance The principal differences between how failure analyses are performed on metal and plastic materials...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-operating conditions with available data on creep, stress-rupture, tension, elevated-temperature fatigue, and thermal fatigue properties. Such an analysis is usually sufficient for most failure investigations, but a more thorough analysis may be required when stress, time, temperature, and environment have...