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thermodynamic principles

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the story. Identification of the mechanisms, which will control the degree of advancement of the reaction, is also duly required. Kinetic models and kinetic data then are needed. In this context, the principles of penetration, dissolution, and spalling are considered. Thermodynamic Calculations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... often cannot be considered to behave, even at room temperature, as purely elastic materials. Several superposition principles can be used to extrapolate short-term test data to a longer period of material property behavior. These include the Boltzmann superposition principle, the time-temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inspection, however, revealed that the magnitude of the effect depends on the relative orientation of the planar arrangement and principle tensile stress. For normal orientation, the effect of embrittlement tends to be most severe. Conversely, when the orientation is parallel, the nodules have little...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and treated compatible coatings to avoid corrosion and hydrogen evolution at the dissimilar metal junctions. Applications Commercial refrigeration equipment cools a system below the temperature of its surroundings using a closed-circuit vapor-compression thermodynamic cycle, wherein the cooling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of Heater Treater Burner Management System The fuel gas header splits into two burner trains. The modulated flow of fuel gas at constant pressure from the temperature control valves enter into aspirator. The aspirator works on venturi principle whereby the fuel gas at given pressure passes through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...). It is significant that in cases involving no attack of a plastic by an active ion, the presence of a dissolved ion may act to diminish the amount and effects of water absorption. Water absorption is an osmotic phenomenon which is governed by the thermodynamic activity of water either in solution or in the vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for quality assurance (QA) purposes, and to compare different materials or manufacturing processes (Ref 1 – 3 ). An estimate of service life or long-term performance under normal operation conditions can, in principle, be determined by extrapolation of the measured data from accelerated testing using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... The efficiency of a power-generation plant is governed by a modified Rankine steam cycle, where thermodynamic efficiency increases with increasing temperature and pressure of the superheated steam entering the turbine. It is possible to further increase the mean temperature of the heat addition by taking back...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... temperatures. Aromatic rings are also thermodynamically more stable than singly-bonded aliphatic structures, which fortunately improves the thermooxidative stability of the resin. Properties of selected commodity and engineering plastics Table 1 Properties of selected commodity and engineering plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microstructure prior to exposure. Of course, most materials are not thermodynamically stable; thus, prolonged exposure under creep conditions can result in microstructural changes, such as the precipitation of new phases, dissolution or growth of desired phases, grain growth, and so on. Many of the structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article reviews analytical techniques that are most often used in plastic component failure analysis. The description of the techniques is intended to familiarize the reader with the general principles and benefits of the methodologies, namely Fourier transform infrared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to deliver material to the extruder at a set rate; this is known as starve feeding. Volumetric feeders rely on a displacement principle to create a discharge stream. They discharge the material to the extruder with a rotating auger, rotary feeder, or vibrating tray/belt at a rate controlled by the speed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... because cavitation erosion in this type of pump is a very complex physical process that depends on many parameters. Generation and collapse of bubbles are influenced by pump geometry, liquid characteristics, materials properties, and hydrodynamic and thermodynamic parameter variations ( Ref 24 , 25 , 26...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of these microstructural changes is generally increased near fracture sites, compared to other regions. The microstructure of a creep or stress-rupture specimen after elevated-temperature exposure rarely resembles the initial microstructure prior to exposure. Of course, most materials are not thermodynamically stable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (glassy state) and above which the polymeric material transitions to a viscous or rubbery state. The T g is also a measure of the onset of long-range molecular motion in the polymeric material. Because the transition from glass to rubber is not a thermodynamic transition but rather a manifestation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... These reviews of corrosion forms and mechanisms are intended to assist the reader in developing an understanding of the underlying principles of corrosion; acquiring such an understanding is the first step in recognizing and analyzing corrosion-related failures and in formulating preventive measures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of electrochemistry, but also the ability to apply fundamental principles of chemistry and metallurgy. It is useful to consider these principles in the context of the form that the corrosion takes. Figure 1 is a schematic of several forms of corrosion, including those described in the sections “Pitting and Crevice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or processing Quality control Changes in maintenance or inspection schedules Protection against environment Restrictions on service loads or service life In addition to the explicit information this article provides, see the sections “Engineering Aspects of Failure and Prevention,” “Principles...