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thermodynamic potential

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Society , 1996 , p 137 – 150 18. Jones R. , Scheduling of Production , Pneumatic Steelmaking, Volume 3 on Refractories , Rigaud M.A. and Landy R.A. , Ed., Iron and Steel Society , 1996 , p 11 – 20 Use of Glazing or Coating Basic Principles Thermodynamic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... the immunity potential toward more noble potentials [ 4 ]. Many studies have been conducted on the corrosion of cupronickel in marine environments and the modes of failure have been observed. Anodic dissolution of the alloy followed by reprecipitation of copper had been proposed and observed; however...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... dispersive spectroscopy Oxide scales Thermodynamics Incoloy 800H UNS N08800 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Introduction Metallurgical Examination Discussion Thermodynamic Considerations for Sulfidation Proposed Failure Sequence Suitability of Incoloy 800H as a Material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and x-ray microanalysis in conjunction with dimensional analysis, phase diagrams and thermodynamics considerations were employed to evaluate the various hypotheses. All evidence pointed to an oxide mass in the area where the hole developed, likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... surroundings using a closed-circuit vapor-compression thermodynamic cycle, wherein the cooling substance or refrigerant, in a gaseous or vapor state, is pressurized in a reversible adiabatic process, then cooled and condensed isentropically to a liquid state. The liquid refrigerant expands as it flows through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inside the fire tube in front of the burner which contains the flame within itself. This avoids contact of the flame with fire tube thereby avoiding hotspots that can lead to potential disaster. The annular space for air is provided with an arrangement of two plates with overlapping holes so...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... come in contact with each other via dissimilar electrolytes. The former is the more common condition. When two materials are in electrical contact and connected by an electrolyte, a galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent potential difference between the two. The resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Potential Atmospheres” , High Temperature Corrosion in Energy Systems , Rothman M. F. , ed., The Metallurgical Society , Warrendale, Penn. , p. 227 ( 1985 ). 15. Luthra K. L. and Shores D. A. , “Mechanism of Na2SO4 Induced Corrosion at 600–900 °C” , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and connected by an electrolyte, a galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The authors would like to thank T. L. Capeletti and N. C. Iyer for their support in carrying out these activities. Aluminum is one of the most thermodynamically reactive metals. Aluminum owes its excellent corrosion resistance in most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... changes, such as slip bands, grain-boundary sliding, cavity formation and growth, and cracking (grain boundary, interphase boundary, and transgranular). Other potential microstructural changes include in situ graphitization that occurs in iron-base alloys without adequate carbide-stabilizing elements...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Soil water saturation, % 5–36 +0.626 Oxidation-reduction potential, mV (CSE) (b) −316 to +384 −0.545 Sulfate concentration in groundwater, mg/g wet weight soil 0.3–200 +0.455 Clay content of soil … +0.407 (a) Viable cell count based on most probable number method. (b) CSE...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of these microstructural changes is generally increased near fracture sites, compared to other regions. The microstructure of a creep or stress-rupture specimen after elevated-temperature exposure rarely resembles the initial microstructure prior to exposure. Of course, most materials are not thermodynamically stable...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to a specific environment in the presence of a tensile stress ( Fig. 1 ). The SCC failures are insidious and potentially dangerous because the stresses at which SCC can occur are relatively low (often less than the yield strength or fatigue strength of a metal), and cracks initiate and propagate in conditions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that results from exposure to incompatible chemicals. Examples of potential stress crack agents are mold releases, cleaners, lubricating oils and greases, plasticizers, and solvents in paints and coatings. Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight can also embrittle the surface layers, resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and copper. In determining if gas evolution can cause porosity, the thermodynamics for the reactions must be evaluated, as discussed in the article “Gases in Metals” in Casting, Volume 15 of ASM Handbook . The gases in cast iron that can cause porosity are hydrogen and nitrogen. Aluminum and copper...