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thermal-fluids systems

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... because the system was thermally cycled some 1200 to 2400 times before cracking penetrated the wall and caused a sharp temperature rise due to combustion of the heat exchanger fluid. How Failure Could Have Been Prevented Flow conditions inside the tube were inadequate to prevent a dry wall...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., uniform scale, with a thermal conductivity of 14.4 W/m · K (10 Btu · in./h · ft 2 · °F) on tubes in the film-boiling region of a 690-kPa (100-psi) system (saturation temperature 285 °C, or 545 °F). Many boilers are designed so that heat transfer at the boiling surface is controlled by fluid-film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Although, many of the principles that apply to Rankine cycle systems also apply to systems using other steam cycles or to systems using working fluids other than steam. Boilers/steam generators work on the principle of conversion of the chemical energy in fuel into thermal energy to generate steam...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... oil underneath itself to begin forming the hydrodynamic wedge. It is not a visible wedge because the entire system is immersed. Rather, it is a pressurized region in which the pressure lifts the shaft. When the wedge of fluid is fully developed, the shaft takes the position shown in Fig. 1(b...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and Probable Root Cause The possible root causes for the vaporizer coil failure evaluated in this study include the following: local flame impingement, piping system stresses, residual stresses from cold bending, thermal cycling from dryout/liquid quench operation. Based on the characteristics...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A component of a water filtration unit failed while being used in service for approximately eight months. The filter system had been installed in a commercial laboratory, where it was stated to have been used exclusively in conjunction with deionized water. The failed part had been...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the compounds that can be formed at different temperatures and encountered in the system considered. Thermal Stability Several polymorphic transitions may occur, and these can change the microstructural integrity of the solids as they are being heated. Some are reversible, and some are irreversible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the sliding surfaces, thereby producing a low resistance to movement. However, the energy required to pump the fluid must be considered in the overall economy of the bearing system. Another factor to consider is that the hydrostatic lubrication requires a pump, which of course may fail and ruin a bearing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for smaller fluid systems. Heat exchangers are usually separate units but can sometimes be incorporated as components in larger thermal systems. In selecting materials for heat exchangers, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties (e.g., strength), thermal properties (e.g., heat conduction), and cost...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... relative to it. Wear is progressive in that it increases with usage or increasing amounts of motion, and it ultimately results in the loss of material from a surface or the transfer of material between surfaces. Wear failures occur because of the sensitivity of a material or system to the surface changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to determine the stress, strain, and displacements of structures subjected to different types of loading. It also has applications in the heat-transfer and thermal fluid areas and, most recently, in the electromagnetic area. This article, first published in 2002, provides a general view on the applicability...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the use of additives. Ozone treatment is one method used in municipal water systems to treat for MIC. Stirring a tank of fluid may be all that is required to avoid pitting corrosion. Change of Alloy and Heat Treatment Alloy changes are often employed to combat corrosion problems, particularly when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and the two sliding surfaces are no longer touching, the hydrodynamic lubrication regime is reached. In this region, the friction in the sliding system is mostly dependent on the viscosity of the fluid, and the two surfaces are fully supported by the pressure of the fluid film during sliding ( Ref 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... reducing its resistance to another, analogous to biological systems. For example, the predominant factors in climatic exposure are moisture, temperature, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The severity of these factors depends on geographical location and must be considered when designing with polymeric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... will drive out the chemical, which can be collected and fed into a gas chromatograph (GC) or a GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system for analysis. Sometimes extraction using a second chemical solvent is necessary, one that is a better solvent for the plasticizer than the polymer is. The extract can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and to ensure that there are no other undesirable polymeric compounds present in the system. The IR analysis also identifies any lubricant and unintentional organic compounds that could have been inadvertently introduced into the material and may have contributed to the failure. Thermal analysis (TA...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is the progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multicomponent fluid, an impinging liquid, or impinging solid particles ( Ref 1 ). Erosion is a rather broad term and can be further classified into a number of more specific terms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Mechanical parts, such as lubricated journal bearings, piston rings, and rolling bearings, typically operate under fluid-film lubrication, even if a mixed- or boundary-lubrication regime is present during the phases with relative velocities close to zero. Cam/follower systems, gears, and contact seals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of loading. It also has applications in the heat transfer and thermal fluid areas and, most recently, in the electromagnetic area. This article is not meant to review the current state of FEA development but rather to highlight its uses in the area of failure analysis and design with emphasis on structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in a three-point deflection loading of 1.82 MPa (264 psi) outer fiber stress. The thermal exchange inert fluid (silicone) has a target-controlled thermal gradient of 2 °C/min. Unfortunately, over time, the thermal degradation of this fluid results in a nonuniform stress field that generates false data...