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thermal-barrier coated superalloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract An investigation was conducted to better understand the time-dependent degradation of thermal barrier coated superalloy components in gas turbines. First-stage vanes are normally subjected to the highest gas velocities and temperatures during operation, and were thus the focus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cyclic oxidation of chromia and alumina oxides formed on nickel-base alloys due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the oxide and the base alloy ( Ref 7 – 9 ). Superalloys containing a sulfur content of 10 ppm can cause premature spallation of protective oxides. Reducing alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... coatings, thermal barrier coatings, and ceramic coatings. aluminide coatings carburization ceramic coatings chloridation corrosion fatigue high temperature corrosion hot corrosion hydrogen interaction metal dusting molten metals molten salts overlay coatings oxidation protective coatings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the superalloys to the highest temperatures in cooled hot parts, a ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied. Hot Corrosion and Oxidation in High Temperature Environments Metals and alloys are known to experience accelerated oxidation when their surfaces are covered with a thin film of fused salt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the rotation of the blade. Because the rotational speed of the turbine is relatively easily controlled, creep failures from excessive turbine speed are rare. Metal temperatures can increase beyond the design point, either from excessive heat input (increased firing temperature, loss of thermal barrier coating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... coating systems based on Ni-Cr-Al-X, where X is an active element that promotes oxide scale adhesion Coating systems that work as thermal barriers (metal-ceramic compounds) In general, these coating layers can improve the hot corrosion behavior of blades, extending their lifetime by a factor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... . The activation energy is the amount of energy that must be overcome for a chemical process to proceed. When taking into account a (more) complete energy balance, one may find that thermal energy and mechanical energy imparted to the system combine to overcome the barrier to activation. In that case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the corrosion process. The basic cause of degradation was found to be hot corrosion caused by the deposition of alkali sulfates and chlorides. However this degradation may have been aggravated by thermal cycling and abrasion. The source of the salt was impurities in the flux. Two potential solutions were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-boundary films of M 23 C 6 at elevated temperatures and that are protected by a tough coating. Examples would be René 80 and René 77, both of which have been used for blades in the past. Experimental Techniques Equipment The basic equipment required is a low thermal mass programmable furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract The principal types of elevated-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low- and high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. This article briefly reviews the applied...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for Thermal Barrier Coatings , Tribol. Trans. , Vol 41 , 1998 , p 399 – 410 44. Smeltzer C.E. , Gulden M.E. , and Compton W.A. , Mechanism of Metal Removal by Impacting Dust Particles , J. of Basic Eng. (Trans. ASME ), Vol 92 , Sept 1970 , p 639 – 654 10.1115/1.3425091...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of 1232 °C (2250 °F) Erosion and Impact Tests for Thermal Barrier Coatings , Tribol. Trans. , Vol 41 , 1998 , p 399 – 410 10.1080/10402009808983765 43. Smeltzer C.E. , Gulden M.E. , and Compton W.A. , Mechanism of Metal Removal by Impacting Dust Particles , J. Basic Eng...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stresses in pure hydrogen gas, and oxygen in small quantities stops the crack growth. Oxygen is believed to form an oxide barrier at the crack tip by preferential adsorption, thereby protecting the crack tip from the damaging effects of the hydrogen. Fracture Characteristics Crack Origin When...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that manufactured materials always have some imperfections or discontinuities that can be acceptable, if they do not interfere with the utility or service of a part. Laps, seams, bursts, hot tears, and thermal cracks are typically considered to be manufacturing defects. However, whether these manufacturing defects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... embrittlement in martensitic high-strength steels. Subcritical crack growth is observed with high-strength steel at very low stresses in pure hydrogen gas, and oxygen in small quantities stops the crack growth. Oxygen is believed to form an oxide barrier at the crack tip by preferential adsorption, thereby...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Assembly damage Defective material Inadequate bolting Connected wrong Foreign material left in General poor workmanship Shock Thermal Mechanical Improper startup Operating Slugs of liquid Process surging Control error Controls deactivated/not installed Operating error Auxiliaries Utility failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... plating on an A286 superalloy fastener subjected to service temperatures above 315 °C (600 °F) (the melting temperature of cadmium is 320 °C, or 610 °F). Two metals specified for use in a wear application could sustain galling if the metals are similar (atomic number) and mutually soluble, such as sliding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... open to the surface. They usually extend across the entire face of the weld and sometimes propagate into the base metal. Transverse cracks in the HAZ (No. 3, Fig. 3 ) occur on the surface in or near the HAZ. They are the result of the high residual stresses induced by thermal cycling during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperatures. The second type, referred to as a cold break, also results from overheating, but is a two-stage failure process. These fractures exhibit an outer circumferential zone of irregular detail with evidence of thermal checks and intergranular separation and an inner fracture zone typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... intergranular fracture at 300 °C (570 °F). High thermal strains from the brazing operation combined with the oxygen embrittlement near the surface could cause intergranular cracking. Surface Conditions Capillary flow of the brazing filler metal into the joint depends on base-metal surfaces that are clean...