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thermal oxidative degradation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be checked to be certain that failure was not due to degradation in an unprotected polymer material. Oxidation Many polymers, especially the olefins and others with long olefinic segments in the polymer chain backbone, will oxidize when exposed to oxygen-containing environments. As with thermal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and x-ray diffraction. It was shown that degradation is driven by chemical and mechanical differences, oxide growth, depletion, and recrystallization, the combined effect of which results in exfoliation, spallation, and mechanical thinning. turbine vanes thermal degradation high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... If thermal degradation is believed to be a factor contributing to failure, the type and amount of these additives should be checked to ensure that failure was not due to degradation in an unprotected polymer material. Oxidation Many polymers, especially the olefins and others with long olefinic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., coke readily accumulates on the surface of the tubes, fueling carbon diffusion into the metal and a corresponding degradation in microstructure and loss of ductility at high temperatures. radiant tube stress rupture thermal shock heat resistant steel carbide precipitates SEM-EDS analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of molecular degradation caused by the service conditions. Specifically, the part material had undergone severe chemical attack, including oxidation and hydrolysis, through contact with silver chloride. The source of the silver chloride was not established, but one potential source was photographic silver...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of moisture or additives. The temperature also determines the state of the polymer (glass transition temperature, melting point). All of these influences affect the structure of a plastic material and thus also its aging behavior. In addition to photodegradation processes, purely thermal degradation processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Oxidation Although most plastic materials react slowly with atmospheric oxygen, elevated temperature or UV radiation can accelerate oxidation processes (thermal or photooxidation, respectively). Many of these degradation processes involve the formation of radicals. Radicals can start chain reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of contaminants is illustrated in Examples 3 and 8 in Ref 4 . Degradation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a valuable tool in assessing a failed component material for degradation such as oxidation and hydrolysis. Molecular degradation, often involving molecular weight reduction, has...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the conservative estimate for tube metal temperature was 667 °C, a value considerably higher than the safe operating limit (580 °C). The Fe 3 O 4 oxide and T12 exhibited thermal conductivity values of 0.592 and 34.6 W/m °C, respectively [ 15 ]. The increasing oxide scale thickness significantly reduced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... assessment methods life fraction rule metallurgical instabilities microstructural evaluation nickel-base superalloys oxide-scale-based life prediction parameter-based assessments power plant piping power plant tubing steel-based alloys thermal-mechanical fatigue ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE FAILURE...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of thermal oxidation, vinyl, vinylene functionality for photooxidation, and hydroxyl group formation indicating hydrolysis ( Ref 4 ). Case studies showing the effectiveness of FTIR in assessing molecular degradation are presented in examples 1 , 13 , and 15 in this article. Chemical Contact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... be an attractive high strength, impact-resistant, and low-moisture-absorbent polymer, thermal degradation processes can readily compromise any of its apparent advantages, as depolymerization dominates over oxidation. The additional presence of acid at or above the continuous service temperature further accelerates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in a higher hot-gas wall temperature and associated degradation of mechanical properties. Combustion chambers Engine components Internal oxidation Pinholes Reentry vehicles Rocket engines Transgranular fracture NARloy-Z High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Brittle fracture Intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 2 O 3 <2%), and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 <1.5%). They have high corrosion resistance to acid slags but are sensitive to high temperatures and to thermal shock, even at medium temperature levels. Bricks with reduced porosity and lower alumina content may be used to prevent rapid degradation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and contact surfaces. Chemical and thermal properties of the bearing grease were also examined. The investigation revealed that the failure was caused by wear due to dry friction and impact, both of which worsened as a result of high-temperature degradation of the bearing grease. Fatigue cracks initiated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... process. The basic cause of degradation was found to be hot corrosion caused by the deposition of alkali sulfates and chlorides. However this degradation may have been aggravated by thermal cycling and abrasion. The source of the salt was impurities in the flux. Two potential solutions were proposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., oxides, chlorides, etc.) from combustion air or fuel contaminants. Corrosion products can react with or dissolve into the deposits, and these surface deposits usually cause the alloys to be attacked by the gas at increased rates. The deposit-modified, gas-induced, high-temperature degradation of alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) microstructure showed only minor aging of the gamma-prime precipitate structure, which is typical of components operated with a relatively high number of engine cycles because of the fewer fired hours between routine overhauls. The protective external coating showed no signs of thermal degradation (oxidation...