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thermal forming

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to form and propagate in tension under the thermal stresses created by the repair-weld heat input. The crack resulted from contamination and embrittlement of a repair weld that had received inadequate gas shielding. Thermal stresses cracked the oxide-rich layer that formed. The gas-shielding accessories...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... rise can be attributed to several factors, such as the initial temperatures of the dies, contact period, contact pressure, lubricant, and surface treatment conditions. Growth of thermal fatigue cracks is facilitated by oxidation on the crack surfaces to form a molybdenum (Mo)-, sulfur (S)-, Cr...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ). This type of cracking initiates at the corner formed by the intersection between the bore of the tube hole and the inside diameter surface of the header. The thermal gradient at this corner is higher than at any other location in the header. In addition, the mechanical stresses at this location...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showed the dark incipient crack was present before the last heat treatment and was oxidized and decarburized prior to the conclusion of the annealing process. The crack ran perpendicular to the fiber, so it was not formed before or during forging. It was a thermal stress crack produced during flame...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... time of operation, the oxide layer is frequently removed and regenerated. Because of this process, three different layers were formed in the inner cross section. This microstructure caused to inhomogeneous mechanical properties through thickness and made the tube susceptible to failure due to thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cyclic oxidation of chromia and alumina oxides formed on nickel-base alloys due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the oxide and the base alloy ( Ref 7 – 9 ). Superalloys containing a sulfur content of 10 ppm can cause premature spallation of protective oxides. Reducing alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The helical mode of the cracking was probably due to the torsional stresses which would be imposed on the elbow by thermally induced movements of the coil in service. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Forms of Corrosion , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be caused by mechanical damage via spallation or cracking of the oxide film from cyclic oxidation of chromia and alumina oxides formed on nickel-base alloys due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between the oxide and the base alloy ( Ref 7 ). Small additions of lanthanum, yttrium, tantalum...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 A metal particle in the 1977 deposit. The steel appears to be an alloy steel and the shape of the porosity demonstrates that this particle formed directly from liquid steel, e.g., from weld spatter or in thermal cutting. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and thickness of the scale formed govern the heat-transfer behavior across the tube wall and the possibilty of damage due to overheating. Furnace walls may also have other deposits from impurities in the boiler feedwater. Because these deposits and scale have a lower thermal conductivity than the steel tube...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 Metal consumption over time for an alloy forming a protective scale under various turbine cycling conditions. The solid black line indicates metal consumption in a thermal cycling regime, with each parabola representing oxidation after effective loss of the protective oxide layer More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... microcracks and pores were formed in top and bond coat ( Fig. 2a , b ), and a thicker thermally grown oxide (TGO) and β-depletion region were grown at the top and bond-coat interface ( Fig. 2c , d ). The β(NiAl)-phase depletion occurred at the outer surface of bond coat due to TGO formation and at the bond...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... with precipitations of numerous granular and very fine, mostly rounded carbides and tine segregation bands. In the head the fibres are in some cases bent over. Above all the edge zone of the cone and the upper part of the stem indicate a thermal effect as a result of which the fine carbide precipitates are formed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polymers, heterochain polymers, and polymers containing aromatic rings. The article also includes some general information on the classification and naming of polymers and plastics. The most important properties of polymers, namely, thermal, mechanical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the tube failed from crevice corrosion under seawater deposits that had formed on the inner surface. Mechanical cleaning of the condenser tubes every 6 months and installation of intake screens of smaller mesh size were recommended. Aluminum bronzes Nuclear reactor components Seawater environment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... deformation, including stress-rupture fractures. It also describes metallurgical instabilities, such as aging and carbide reactions, and evaluates the complex effects of creep-fatigue interaction. The article concludes with a discussion on thermal fatigue and creep fatigue failures. aging carbide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... elements in areas adjacent to that area. In addition, the intersection of the two welds contained cracks similar in appearance to those normally formed when variations in thermal expansion and contraction are encountered when welding dissimilar metals. A microhardness traverse across the weld area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Fig. 2 Showing creep damage in the pipe in the form of grain boundary sliding and cracking. Unetched. The failure was attributed to repeated relaxation cycles of very high stresses of thermal origin resulting from the periodic shutdowns, temperature fluctuations during service, or both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The principal types of elevated-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low- and high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. This article briefly reviews the applied aspects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... before the thermal stresses change sign. Above the M s transformation temperature, the stresses that are formed are thermal. On further cooling, the stresses in the core exceed the yield strength, and plastic deformation (elongation) occurs. Subsequent martensitic transformation at the core provides...