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thermal expansion composites

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... by dilution of the alloy and the presence of sulfur caused hot shortness. The necessary internal stress to produce extensive cracking was produced by the differential thermal expansion of the carbon and stainless steels. Periodic careful gouging of the affected areas followed by repair welding was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... iron similar to ASTM A395. Visual examination of the rotor revealed unusually heavy oxidation and thermal fatigue cracking along the edge of the gas passage. Material properties, including microstructure, composition, and hardness, of both the rotor and housing were evaluated to determine the cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... coefficient of thermal expansion 28Cr3SiNiWMoV (chromium hot-worked steel) Introduction History Visual Observations Chemical Composition Hardness Testing Phase Analysis Metallography Characterization by Eddy Current Method Discussion Conclusion References References 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
..., the intersection of the two welds contained cracks similar in appearance to those normally formed when variations in thermal expansion and contraction are encountered when welding dissimilar metals. A microhardness traverse across the weld area revealed a base metal average hardness of 89 HRB. The hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The weight of the evaluated material can decrease due to volatilization or decomposition or increase because of gas absorption or chemical reaction. Thermogravimetric analysis can provide valuable information regarding the composition and thermal stability of polymeric materials. The obtained data can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. Carburized material in the inner wall of the radiant tube has a higher thermal expansion coefficient and tends to increase in volume and place stresses on the tube. These thermal stresses make the tube more susceptible to creep failure [ 3 ]. The deposition of the coke at high temperature is generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 16 Magnetic iron oxide 2.9 20 Silicate scale (porous) 0.09 0.6 Steel 24.5–44.7 170–310 (a) Source: Ref 1 . (b) Source Ref 2 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and austenitic steels Table 5 Coefficients of thermal expansion for ferritic and austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analysis [ 10 ] Density 8900 kg/m 3 Module of elasticity 170 GPa Poisson’s ratio 0.31 Thermal expansion 14 E-6/°C Thermal conductivity 90.7 J/m °C Thermal capacity 444 J/kg °C The displacement boundary conditions were two types. First, the common practice of bolting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... one-dimensional heating or cooling can be estimated from ( Ref 6 ): (Eq 2) σ = E ⋅ ε = E ⋅ 1 3 ( Δ V / V ) = E ⋅ α ⋅ Δ T where σ is stress, ε is strain, E (modulus of elasticity) = 2 × 10 5 N/mm 2 , and α (coefficient of thermal expansion) = 1.2 × 10 −5...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... mismatch when solids are heated. All noncubic lattice refractory compounds, for example, Cr 2 O 3 (hexagonal); Fe 2 O 3 (trigonal); and ZrO 2 (monoclinic), are susceptible to disruptive intercrystalline debonding, since they exhibit thermal expansion anisotropy. Another cause of debonding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or a material that develops unexpected embrittlement at or above the service temperature. Thermal cycling can cause failures where adjacent materials differ significantly in composition and coefficient of thermal expansion. Embrittlement may also be the result of metallurgical changes that leave the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (startup/shutdown) of a gas turbine leads to thermal expansion and contraction of hot section components. For these expansions and contractions to result in strain, there must be either a thermal gradient or a physical constraint of the component preventing or limiting the expansion or contraction. Damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the inside of the tube, or conversely. Therefore, thermal conductivity, wall thickness, and resistance to scaling are extremely important. In most cases, tensile strength and yield strength of the tubes are not significant factors; loading, because it is opposed by the internal pressure, is so low that tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen damage; fracture, including fatigue fracture, thermal fatigue fracture, and stress rupture; and distortion, especially distortion involving thermal-expansion effects or creep. The causes of failure can generally be classified as design defects; fabrication defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in heat treatment is the uneven expansion and contraction that occurs within a part because of thermal gradients during heating and cooling. In addition to thermal stresses, steels are subjected to transformation stresses when they are hardened to martensite during quenching. Some specific problem areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... psig), 600 °C (1110 °F) and above >42 Advanced ultrasupercritical 27.8–34.5 MPa (4000–5000 psig), 700–760 °C (1300–1400 °F) >45 Source: Ref 34 Nominal composition of alloys tested in molten chlorides at 650 and 700 °C (1200 and 1290 °F) under nitrogen Table 3 Nominal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and dissolution can increase or decrease the liquidus or solidus temperature of the braze filler metal, depending on its composition and thermal cycle. This mutual solubility was noted in the brazing of a high-nickel (Inconel) base material in an inert-atmosphere furnace using copper braze filler metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... occurred when die shear forces exceeded the mechanical bond force between the ink and the substrate during die shear testing. During manufacturing, fracture occurred when the resistor assembly was manufactured with the top land termination up and shear forces exerted by the thermal expansion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... examination of the failure regions of the expansion bellows intake end revealed fatigue striations ( Fig. 12 .). the wide spacing of these striations indicated that the failure propagated by low-cycle thermal and/or mechanical fatigue prior to complete breakdown. Fig. 12 Fracture surface of expansion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of these problematic installations were considered. For the solar units, power was generated only during the day, so the transformer would naturally cool at night. The thermal cycling, along with the corresponding expansion and contraction, was contemplated as a possible explanation of how cyclic loading may...