1-20 of 61 Search Results for

thermal evaporation

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Patterns The eroded edges exhibited the river bed ditching patterns ( Fig. 3 ) typical of thermal fatigue caused by intermittent wetting and evaporation of water on the surface. The planar edges on the opposite side of the sample did not exhibit any plastic deformation of the fracture edges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... calorimetry (DSC) are the two most widely used thermal analysis methods for polymers. In DSC, sample and reference pans are heated in a controlled environment at a programmable rate so that the pre-weighed sample and the reference materials are always maintained at equivalent temperatures. Because the amount...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electrons from a tungsten filament are termed cold-field-emission SEMs, or high-resolution SEMs, and have the highest resolution capabilities of all SEMs. A compromise is reached in the thermal-field-emission (or Schottky gun) SEM when a combination of heat and electric field are used to produce an electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The cracking was confined to the inner diameter of the vaporizer coil at positions from 4:00 to 7:00. The cracking was characterized as transgranular and the fracture surface had beach marks. The failure mechanism was thermal fatigue. The heat transfer calculation predicted that dryout of the coil would occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... leading to rapid cooling. On evaporation of water, the surface would attain its normal temperature leading to relaxation of surface stresses. After a sufficient number of thermal cycles, a random or a crazed crack pattern appears on the surface. On repeated action, one or more of the surface fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the failure analysis. The challenge for the analyst then becomes deciding whether the degradation occurred during fabrication of the part or on exposure to an aqueous service environment. Thermal Degradation High molecular weight polymers will also break down upon exposure to elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A large diameter steel pipe reinforced by stiffening rings with saddle supports was subjected to thermal cycling as the system was started up, operated, and shut down. The pipe functioned as an emission control exhaust duct from a furnace and was designed originally using lengths...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... process. The basic cause of degradation was found to be hot corrosion caused by the deposition of alkali sulfates and chlorides. However this degradation may have been aggravated by thermal cycling and abrasion. The source of the salt was impurities in the flux. Two potential solutions were proposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...-evaporators. After going over to welded construction and introduction of caustic-cracking resistant steels by A. Fry 4 , rivet-hole cracks in steam boilers are not often encountered. In the following this type of failure is to be illustrated in an example of a water tube boiler with two headers and 15.5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Although, many of the principles that apply to Rankine cycle systems also apply to systems using other steam cycles or to systems using working fluids other than steam. Boilers/steam generators work on the principle of conversion of the chemical energy in fuel into thermal energy to generate steam...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that a reduced polymer molecular weight is discovered during failure analysis. The challenge for the analyst then becomes deciding whether the degradation occurred during fabrication of the part or upon exposure to an aqueous service environment. Thermal Degradation High molecular weight polymers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... shutdown, temperature rises caused evaporation of refrigerant, leading to an increase in the internal pressure. R-503 refrigerant has an equilibrium pressure of 4.2 MPa (609 psi), so the possibility of internal pressure reaching this value during a prolonged shutdown period cannot be ruled out ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... beneath the thermal insulation that was placed on the pipe to keep the temperature more constant and aid in preventing condensation. The cracks were associated with gross leaks in the pipe. This section details the observations and findings including the materials of construction, the crack details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of thermal oxidation of a material as well as the rate of photochemical reactions but typically also decrease the moisture content, which can decrease the rate of hydrolysis reactions. It is therefore critical for meaningful and realistic artificial testing to simulate all of these factors simultaneously...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... A compromise is reached in the thermal-field-emission (or Schottky gun) SEM, where a combination of heat and electric field are used to produce electrons. These machines have better resolution than conventional SEMs, while being easier to use than the high-resolution machines. A conventional SEM also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the difference in heat flow between a sample and a reference as the material is heated or cooled ( Ref 6 ). The technique is used to evaluate thermal transitions within a material. Such transitions include glass transitions, melting, evaporation, crystallization, solidification, cross linking, chemical reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses the thermal properties of engineering plastics and elastomers with respect to chemical composition, chain configuration, and base polymer conformation as determined by thermal analysis. It describes the processing of base polymers with or without additives...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (on the order of 10 nm, or 100 Å), produced by sputtering or evaporation, also help in getting high-quality images in optical microscopes. The reason is that the coatings eliminate subsurface scattered light, thus making it easier to see markings on the fracture surface. Replicas can be used to advantage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen damage; fracture, including fatigue fracture, thermal fatigue fracture, and stress rupture; and distortion, especially distortion involving thermal-expansion effects or creep. The causes of failure can generally be classified as design defects; fabrication defects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction to occur, using the appropriate thermodynamic calculations. This should be done in two steps: Verify the available thermodynamic data for the thermal stability of each constituent. Make the appropriate thermodynamic calculations to estimate the free enthalpy variations (Δ G ) r , for all...