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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Pertinent Specifications The clamp was purchased to API type 2 material. There are no specified chemical composition requirements for type 2 material, and no Charpy impact energy requirements. Requirements regarding strength, elongation, and reduction of area will be discussed later. The clamp...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as a function of time within a single flight. One can imagine that, due to the physics dictating the behavior of thermal and mechanical wave propagation as well as thermal energy storage, the phasing of the mechanical demand will likely not be identical to the phasing of the thermal demand placed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of moisture or additives. The temperature also determines the state of the polymer (glass transition temperature, melting point). All of these influences affect the structure of a plastic material and thus also its aging behavior. In addition to photodegradation processes, purely thermal degradation processes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a closed-loop servohydraulic mechanical test machine, and suitable extensometry. A radio frequency (RF) heat source has essentially no thermal inertia and is thus ideal, assuming that the material being tested couples to RF energy. High-quality closed-loop test equipment is available from several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the Art in Thermal Insulation Materials and Aims for Future Developments , Energy Build. , Vol 37 ( No. 1 ), Jan 2005 , p 77 – 86 , 10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.05.006 13. Winnik S. , Corrosion under Insulation (CUI) Guidelines , Elsevier , 2014 14. Twomey M. , Inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses metallurgical instabilities of steel-based alloys and nickel-base superalloys. It provides information on several life assessment methods, namely, the life fraction rule, parameter-based assessments, the thermal-mechanical fatigue, coating evaluations, hardness testing, microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... at the bore due to High-speed rotation. During cold starts, the bore region also experiences a high tangential thermal stress in tension because of the high temperature gradient from the periphery to the bore. Circumstances Leading to Failure The materials used in turbine forgings (Ni-Mo-V, Cr-Mo-V...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ), considering erodent particles to be rigid with square pyramid-shaped bodies of height and base length equal to the average grit size. The model takes into account the loss of both kinetic energy as well as thermal energy of the impacting particles relying on energy conservation. According to this model...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or vibration) or thermal loading. Metal fatigue has been a recognized damage mechanism since the mid-1800s. Furthermore, fatigue damage has been responsible for many catastrophic failures of equipment, structures, machines, and components, and it will undoubtedly continue to be a major damage mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... limit. Most conservative design requires all application temperatures to be remote from the glass transition region. The relationship between T g and the amount of absorbed water can be affected by many factors, such as additives, thermal pretreatments, presence or absence of fillers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for stress include pressure, weight, and thermal loads, in addition to residual stress from the welding processes. A PWHT operation will significantly reduce weld residual stress. Material Toughness Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the conservative estimate for tube metal temperature was 667 °C, a value considerably higher than the safe operating limit (580 °C). The Fe 3 O 4 oxide and T12 exhibited thermal conductivity values of 0.592 and 34.6 W/m °C, respectively [ 15 ]. The increasing oxide scale thickness significantly reduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and Hysteretic Heating Due to the viscoelastic nature of polymeric solids, a portion of the strain energy may dissipate under cyclic loading conditions. This dissipation can result in an increase in specimen temperature until the heat generated per cycle is equal to the heat dissipated. The thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... shape, which is less of a stress concentrator with the surrounding matrix and less damaging than inclusions with more angular shapes. The principle of inclusion shape control is to reduce the surface energy between the inclusion and the metal—normally through suitable chemistry modification of the metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...). Corrosion or Wear Deposits Chemical analysis of a typical crack fracture surface was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The spectrum revealed contamination by iron, sulfur, and silicon. The iron and sulfur detected in the cracks were believed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-welded high-energy piping failures ( Ref 13 ) 1986–2000 Cavitation and creep voids in welds, resulting in catastrophic high-energy rupture Development of elevated-temperature life assessment techniques for cavitation and creep failure Aloha incident, Boeing 737 ( Ref 14 ) 1988 Accelerated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “safe-life” to damage-tolerant design philosophy Development of materials with improved toughness Seam-welded high-energy piping failures ( Ref 12 ) 1986–2000 Cavitation and creep voids in welds resulting in catastrophic high-energy rupture Development of elevated-temperature life assessment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... requirements (e.g., magnetic, electrical, electronic, or thermal properties) typically supersede the mechanical property requirements. Other design disciplines include industrial, automotive, welding, mining, aerospace, nuclear, and computer engineering. Each type of engineering discipline requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... requirements (e.g., magnetic, electrical, electronic, or thermal properties) typically supersede the mechanical property requirements. Other design disciplines include industrial, automotive, welding, mining, aerospace, nuclear, and computer engineering. Each engineering discipline requires specialized...