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thermal barrier coatings

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and (b) inner root area of 700ES Abstract An investigation was conducted to better understand the time-dependent degradation of thermal barrier coated superalloy components in gas turbines. First-stage vanes are normally subjected to the highest gas velocities and temperatures during operation...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 20 (a) Photograph of first-stage vane ring following removal from the turbine. (b) Photograph of a vane following removal from the vane ring. (c) Optical micrograph of remnant thermal barrier coating from a hot (white) region. (d) Detail of coating interface from (c). Note the fragment More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... coatings, thermal barrier coatings, and ceramic coatings. aluminide coatings carburization ceramic coatings chloridation corrosion fatigue high temperature corrosion hot corrosion hydrogen interaction metal dusting molten metals molten salts overlay coatings oxidation protective coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... portion of the metallization, which enabled subsequent electro deposition of the nickel barrier and solderable tin coatings. Metallography Microstructural Analysis In order to determine the construction integrity and material failure mode of the resistor chips, transverse sections of samples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the rotation of the blade. Because the rotational speed of the turbine is relatively easily controlled, creep failures from excessive turbine speed are rare. Metal temperatures can increase beyond the design point, either from excessive heat input (increased firing temperature, loss of thermal barrier coating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... protective coatings of two types, aluminide or chromium (diffusion) coatings and overlay coatings, are applied. Also to reduce the exposure of the superalloys to the highest temperatures in cooled hot parts, a ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied. High-temperature hot corrosion (HTHC) has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the environment; change in the alloy or heat treatment; change in design; use of galvanic protection; use of inhibitors; use of nonmetallic coatings and liners; application of metallic coatings; use of surface treatments, thermal spray, or other surface modifications; corrosion monitoring; and preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... been dissolved. Iron is nearly inert in air-free water and seawater, because there is limited cathodic reaction possible. If the surface of the metal is coated with paint or other nonconducting film, the rates of both anodic and cathodic reactions are greatly reduced, and corrosion will be retarded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or a combination of ceramic and metal (cermet) materials, which are much harder than the underlying steel substrate ( Ref 136 ). Three major techniques are used for these coatings: physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal spray. Physical Vapor Deposition Coatings Overlay coatings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., where X is an active element that promotes oxide scale adhesion Coating systems that work as thermal barriers (metal-ceramic compounds) In general, these coating layers can improve the hot corrosion behavior of blades, extending their lifetime by a factor of four. The testing techniques used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of steels). The two primary objectives are to minimize heat losses and to prevent various fluids and solids from coming in direct contact with the outer skin (again, most of the time, made of steels). Unlike thin organic linings and coatings, refractory linings may consist of one or many times two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 1.0 max Cu 0.4 0.47 0.50 0.75 max Al 0.43 0.42 0.49 0.15 to 0.60 Ti 0.48 0.54 0.52 0.15 to 0.60 Nb 0.09 0.21 … … Mo 0.29 0.30 … … Co 0.23 0.23 … … P <0.01 <0.01 … … Fe Rem Rem 46.52 39.5 min Coatings and Surface Layer Unlike...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... process. The basic cause of degradation was found to be hot corrosion caused by the deposition of alkali sulfates and chlorides. However this degradation may have been aggravated by thermal cycling and abrasion. The source of the salt was impurities in the flux. Two potential solutions were proposed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-boundary films of M 23 C 6 at elevated temperatures and that are protected by a tough coating. Examples would be René 80 and René 77, both of which have been used for blades in the past. Experimental Techniques Equipment The basic equipment required is a low thermal mass programmable furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for Thermal Barrier Coatings , Tribol. Trans. , Vol 41 , 1998 , p 399 – 410 44. Smeltzer C.E. , Gulden M.E. , and Compton W.A. , Mechanism of Metal Removal by Impacting Dust Particles , J. of Basic Eng. (Trans. ASME ), Vol 92 , Sept 1970 , p 639 – 654 10.1115/1.3425091...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the holes with no clearance in order to avoid fretting, but an interference fit may cause delamination. This problem has been alleviated to some extent by the development of several special sleeve/fastener combinations. The extreme temperature changes experienced by aircraft can cause differential thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is effective and economical. Various coating techniques can be used, including thermal spray, hardfacing, laser surface modification, physical vapor deposition, and chemical vapor deposition ( Ref 63 , 68 ). Ceramic-metal composite coatings (e.g., WC-CrNi, WC-Co, and WC-FeCrAl coatings) are often used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and liquid-metal embrittlement of bolts and nuts. The article explains the most commonly used protective metal coatings for ferrous metal fasteners. Zinc, cadmium, and aluminum are commonly used for such coatings. The article also illustrates the performance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... . The activation energy is the amount of energy that must be overcome for a chemical process to proceed. When taking into account a (more) complete energy balance, one may find that thermal energy and mechanical energy imparted to the system combine to overcome the barrier to activation. In that case...