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temperature fluctuations

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... between the plates and the pipe. The creep damage failure was attributed to repeated relaxation cycles of very high thermal stresses of resulting from the periodic shutdowns, temperature fluctuations during service, or both. This failure emphasized the information available from an evaluation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... or thermal gradients impose sufficiently high peak stresses. Some form of mechanical constraint and temperature fluctuations gives rise to thermal fatigue ( Ref 6 ). Constraint may be external (for example, imposed by rigid mountings) or it may be internal, in which case it is set up by a temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to decrease the temperature fluctuations of the inner surface. Electric power generation Fatigue failure Steam turbines Turbogenerators 321 UNS S32100 Thermal fatigue fracture Background Testing Procedure and Results Discussion Conclusion and Recommendations Selected References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The safety valve on a steam turbogenerator was set to open when the steam pressure reaches 2400 kPa (348 psi). The pressure had not exceeded 1790 kPa (260 psi) when the safety-valve spring shattered into 12 pieces. The steam temperature in the line varied from about 330 to 400...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that if the header is subject to a temperature fluctuation of 25°F (14°C), the stresses at the corner of the tube hole increase by 5% or 1100 psi (7.6 MPa). If the header is subject to a temperature fluctuation of 100°F (55°C), the stresses at the comer of the tube hole increase by 77% or 16,100 psi (110 MPa...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fluctuations in the desuperheater assembly. A temperature fluctuation as low as 94° C (200° F) in the assembly, about the mean operating temperature of 480° C (900° F), could induce thermal strains in excess of the yield of the material. The beach markings on the fracture surface were attributed to crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... with a wall thickness of 3 8 in. and had been operating at 400 p.s.i. for six years, the steam conditions varying from 450°F. saturated to 650°F. superheated. The manner in which the main was utilised resulted in the temperature fluctuating between these values once or twice per day...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., temperature, or pressure. Initial failure had taken place in the floating dished inlet plate (eye plate) of the first-stage impeller. Failure occurred predominantly by tearing along the lines of rivet holes for the longer blades, these extended for practically the full radial width of the dished plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (15 in.) deep with a 2.5-cm (1-in.) wall thickness, was a type 309 stainless steel weldment. Operating temperatures of the lead bath in the pan ranged from 805 deg C (1480 deg F) at the entry end to 845 deg C (1550 deg F) at the exit end. Analysis (visual inspection. metallographic analysis, moisture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... changes in the temperature of the bore of the flange, thus superimposing a fluctuating component on the residual stress; in addition, the condensate would wet the affected zone, so that the requisite conditions for the development of corrosion-fatigue failure would be present. It is significant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... by pressure fluctuations or the effects of water hammer, as well as simple vibration. Repeated expansion and contraction as a result of considerable temperature fluctuations may show similar effects. Corrosion fatigue cracks, which result from this cause, are often initiated at small corrosion spots...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... is commonly encountered in flights over oceans and in coastal areas, and temperature fluctuations are frequent. Hardness Hardness determinations showed this alloy to have a Brinell hardness of 174 HB (using a 3000 g load and a 10 mm hardened steel ball indenter). Hardness data on 7014 aluminum alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fatigue but also by the pressurized heavy-water environment itself. Experimental work has confirmed the presence of fluctuations in a coolant zone with stratified temperature layers. These fluctuations are associated with variations in moderator flow, which allow thermal fatigue to be induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., at one time, fatigue failures were mistakenly thought to show that the metal had lost its ductility ( Ref 1 ). To this end, fatigue failure involves progressive, localized, permanent structural change in metals due to fluctuating stresses and strains ( Ref 2 ). To accurately estimate the fatigue life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... coefficient of carbon steel is over 30% greater than that of titanium within the operating temperature range of the heat exchanger 3 . As the exchanger temperature varied with process flow fluctuation, the joints were subjected to a thermally cyclic condition. The tube and the tubesheet, being joined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... composites fatigue fatigue fracture fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination polymers FATIGUE failure of engineering components and structures results from progressive fracture caused by cyclic or fluctuating loads. The magnitude of each individual load event is too small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stages of propagation of fatigue cracks in rods subjected to torsion. Fatigue can initiate on planes of maximum shear (longitudinal or transverse), then propagate under cyclic or fluctuating tensile stress acting at 45° to the circular rod axis. An X-pattern can form under reversed torsional loading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... dimensions of the coupling were in accordance with the specified dimensions. The maximum value of the fluctuating shear stress at the inner corner of the keyway was computed as 71 MPa (10 ksi). The fatigue limit of the coupling material for fluctuating shear stresses is approximately 500 MPa (72 ksi...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Typical data on boiler operating parameters versus plant efficiency Table 1 Typical data on boiler operating parameters versus plant efficiency Type of boiler Steam pressure Steam temperature Typical plant efficiency, % MPa ksi °C °F Subcritical <22.1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... in general are attributable to the use of defective material, the majority arising from deficiencies in design or from abnormal service conditions - temperature, corrosive environment, overload, fluctuating stress, shock, etc. Internal defects having a metallurgical origin can act as convenient points...