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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... was caused by lack of temperature control during application which resulted in localized surface rehardening. It was established that there was a significant difference in the grade of the hydraulic fluid that was used in the two test programs. Use of superior grade of hydraulic fluid was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... had received a postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Metallographic examination revealed that the corroded areas contained undertempered martensite. Fully tempered weld areas with a hardness of 93 HRB were not attacked. No evidence of corrosion fatigue was found. Uneven temperature control during PWHT...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and to develop corrective measures to minimize future failures. Service History The steam supplied to the plant was normally controlled at 517-kPa (75-psi) line pressure. For the first 18 months of service, the brine heater operated at a maximum temperature of 120 °C (250 °F) and a steam temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of successful heat treatment is procedure qualification and process controls to ensure proper heating and cooling of a metal during heat treatment. The furnace must be of the proper size and type, and temperatures must be controlled within the prescribed limits for each operation to prevent overheating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... system constructed of 316 stainless steel. The autoclave was used to cure special cements as part of an experimental program by providing a controlled pressure and temperature. A schematic representation of the charged system is shown in Figure 1 . At the time of failure, two systems were contained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of Heater Treater Burner Management System The fuel gas header splits into two burner trains. The modulated flow of fuel gas at constant pressure from the temperature control valves enter into aspirator. The aspirator works on venturi principle whereby the fuel gas at given pressure passes through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... operation. In addition, the use of an epoxy primer prior to shipment of the panels was endorsed. Most importantly, surveillance of the anodizing process itself was emphasized, including continual monitoring of bath acid concentration, solution cleanliness, temperature control, and voltage/amperage control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... stresses in molded or extruded parts by reversing the process. This is accomplished by placing the parts in a thermostatically controlled circulating air oven and subjecting them to a predetermined temperature for a specific time. The specimens are visually examined for a variety of features. The degree...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... propagation were needed be controlled. It was concluded that improved steel processing procedures, chiefly hot-working temperature and deformation control, were also required to optimize microstructure and properties. Chemical composition Ductile brittle transition Gas pipelines Steel making API 5L...
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 9 Conversion-time curves at cure temperatures below the glass transition temperature for full cure ( T g∞ ), showing the transition from chemical control to diffusion control upon vitrification. T g∞ ~ 120 °C (250 °F). Source: Ref 23 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... such as those observed in the pitch control thrust bearings can occur by exposure to high temperatures and/or plastic deformation. Temperature above 760°C (1400°F) would have to be reached at the contact surfaces to cause the microstructure to transform to untempered martensite. Lower temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Sulfide inclusions, for example, have been shape controlled by the addition of calcium or rare earth metal treatments. These inclusions are not plastic or deformable at typical hot working temperatures and retain their globular shape. Therefore, they are less injurious with respect to ductility, toughness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and 1100°C for 10, 30 and 100 minutes. It was believed that the H-4 and M-11 locations experienced only low temperatures. These control specimens were polished, etched and compared to the TMI-2 boat specimens. Specimens were cut from the boat specimens and studied by the VIP members. In the USA...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... calorimetry (DSC) are the two most widely used thermal analysis methods for polymers. In DSC, sample and reference pans are heated in a controlled environment at a programmable rate so that the pre-weighed sample and the reference materials are always maintained at equivalent temperatures. Because the amount...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is the radiation source or lamp. Depending on the type of lamp, one can achieve a good simulation of the whole or specific parts of the solar spectrum (e.g., only the UV range). Specimen temperatures can be controlled by the IR component of the simulated solar radiation or by direct heating or cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of stress stored in a thermoset can be detected by the change in dimension on heating to above the T g , where the stress relaxes. Thermogravimetric Analysis Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measures the mass of a sample as a function of temperature or time in a controlled atmosphere. As applied...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... was reported to have been closely controlled at the normal temperature of 1175 deg C (2150 deg F); a hydrogen atmosphere was used during brazing. After about five months of continuous operation, four or five holes developed on the floor of the muffle, and the muffle was removed from service. Analysis (visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-and-tempered microstructure contained solidification shrinkage, inherently poor ductility, and type II Mn-S inclusions that are known to reduce ductility. The macro and microscale fracture features confirmed that the casting was likely in low-temperature service at the time of failure. The composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Streaks of ferrite were observed by metallographic examination. It was concluded that cracking of the top of the fire-extinguisher case was the result of ferrite streaks formed due to metal overheating. The temperature of the metal was recommended to be controlled so that the spinning operation is done...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... amount of retained austenite. This caused reduced wear resistance and thus rapid wear in service. Recommendations included avoiding an excessive austenitizing temperature and excessive cooling rates from the austenitizing temperature and controlling the chemical composition to avoid excessive...