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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the response surface method, and Monte Carlo sampling. A brief introduction to importance sampling, time-variant reliability, system reliability, and risk analysis and target reliabilities is also provided. The article examines the various application problems for which probabilistic analysis is an essential...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A nickel alloy cylinder plated with chromium along its inner liner, installed in a commercial ice cream freezer, showed gray discoloration along its OD surface. The discolored parts exhibited significantly reduced cooling efficiency as compared with new cylinders. During operation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... increase wear damage in wet and aqueous environments have been identified ( Ref 1 ). Slurry Handling The movement of materials as a slurry is an efficient means of transportation that is used in many industries. However, the movement of these slurries can cause significant corrosive wear. Pumps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... imagination.) The strength of the secondary electron signal often may be increased by tilting the sample slightly toward the detector. This results in more efficient collection of the secondary signal and can improve the signal-to-noise ratio without decreasing resolution. This may be helpful when trying...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be increased by tilting the sample slightly toward the detector. This results in more efficient collection of the secondary signal and can improve the signal-to-noise ratio without decreasing resolution. This may be helpful when trying to get the utmost resolution possible. Backscattered Electrons...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and analysis of conditions usually achieved by the installation of removable coupons in the target system. The article also explains the prevention and control strategies of MIC in industrial systems. aluminum aluminum alloys condition monitoring cooling towers copper copper alloys corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., are the question to be answered, the computational effort is even greater. Efficient gradient-based numerical algorithms for estimating probabilities of failure ( Ref 9 – 11 ) were developed through the 1980s, but all suffer from the problem of being restricted to computationally efficient models, or using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... . The genes necessary for the production and secretion of this enzyme were identified and were proposed as targets for the future identification of this mechanism. Manganese (IV) Oxide Manganese (IV) oxide is insoluble in water but is a powerful oxidant that can corrode steel if contact is made...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... apart from its primary function(s), such as those needed to fulfill regulatory requirements and those that concern issues such as protection, control, containment, comfort, appearance, energy efficiency, and structural integrity User A person or organization that operates an asset or system and may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... specified interval Secondary functions Functions that a physical asset or system has to fulfill apart from its primary function(s), such as those needed to fulfill regulatory requirements and those that concern issues such as protection, control, containment, comfort, appearance, energy efficiency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... materials, time of contact, surface conditions (e.g., cleanliness, oxidization, etc.), and the composition and amount of flux used during the joining process. When the molten solder contacts the target surface (such as copper traces or leads/pads on the PCB), melt spreading takes place. The spread...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... capabilities and limitations and how these affect our interaction with products, processes, and environments. The general objective of human factors is to maximize human and machine efficiency, health, safety, comfort, and quality of life ( Ref 7 , 8 ). The field of human factors helps engineers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... solutions The first is termed a problem statement or definition of the problem, while the second is termed a specification, a target specification, or, more correctly, a design specification. Both of these are essential if a solution to the problem that satisfies all parties is to be found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 40 keV range are incident on the target material. This is possible because the total wattage of the device is very low, less than 5 W, which is much lower than a typical dental x-ray. The incident x-ray photons excite characteristic x-rays from the surface of the sample, which are then collected...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information available to support a broader investigation, in a more efficient manner, at a later time. Also, the understanding gained may lead to an improved product that may be appropriate for a particular market niche, for example, long-life light bulbs It may be that there is no true product failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to prevention. The work is still worthwhile, because if certain economic situations change, there is background information available to support a broader investigation, in a more efficient manner, at a later time. Also, the understanding gained may lead to an improved product that may be appropriate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be specified on the drawings. Post-design economic decisions on changing to a resulfurized grade for more efficient machining must be discussed with design engineers and a re-evaluation must be performed. In addition, the economic gains for small production lots may be insignificant compared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-processed hardware have a wide range at 5 to 40%. For comparison, most mature production processes target a maximum scrap rate of ~2%. As with any new fabrication process, there are many reasons for a large scrap rate. In addition, as with any fabrication process, scrap rate data are very dependent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., for which solutions will be sought A set of requirements and constraints against which to evaluate the proposed solutions The first is termed a problem statement , or definition of the problem , while the second is termed a specification , a target specification , or more correctly a design...