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synthetic rubber

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., as specified in AS 3791-1991 Hydraulic Hoses. This type of hose consisted of an inner tube of oil-resistant synthetic rubber, a single medium-carbon steel wire braid reinforcement, and an oil-and-weather resistant synthetic rubber cover. The wire braiding was found to be severely corroded in the area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Abstract A hoist lift hose on a loader failed catastrophically. The hoses were a 100R13 type (as classified in AS3791-1991) with 50.8 mm nominal internal diameter. They consisted of six alternating spirals of heavy wire around a synthetic rubber inner tube with a synthetic rubber outer sheath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polyethylene heat-de ection temperature high-impact polystyrene high-strength sheet molding compound high-performance liquid chromatography high-pressure polyethylene high-speed liquid chromatography International Electrotechnical Commission butyl rubber (or isobutylene-isoprene rubber) infrared; synthetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in terms of their electrical properties, some of which are conductive or semiconductive. Elastomers, which are natural or synthetic rubber-like materials with excellent elastic properties, are often used. Their designations and general electrical applications are given in Table 7 . Table 8 provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... at the same level of stress. Hydrocarbon liquids will have similar effects on polyolefin plastics such as polyethylene. In crosslinked rubber products, swelling will result when exposure to chemical solvents occurs ( Ref 10 ). The swelling can be rather extreme when the solubility parameter difference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... aromatic oils as a feedstock material. The feedstock material is fed into a hot refractory-lined furnace in the absence of air, where the feedstock decomposes into carbon black and hydrogen. Silica There are three categories of commercially available synthetic silicas: precipitated, fumed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the surface (arrows). Specimen etched with nital Wheels consist of abrasive particles, chiefly alumina or silicon carbide (SiC), and filler in a binder material that may be a resin, rubber, or a mixture of resin and rubber. Alumina is the preferred abrasive for ferrous alloys, and SiC is the preferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... consist of networks of heavily coiled and heavily cross-linked polymer chains. For example, polyisoprene ( Fig. 5 ) is a synthetic rubber with the same basic structure as natural rubber but lacking the impurities found in natural rubber. The addition of sulfur to this compound and the application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with nital Abrasive wheels should be selected according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Wheels consist of abrasive particles, chiefly alumina or silicon carbide (SiC), and filler in a binder material that may be a resin, rubber, or a mixture of resin and rubber. Alumina is the preferred...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... thermoplastics because of the presence of heavy cross links, which inhibits the sliding of polymer chains past each other. Elastomers are typified by natural rubber and by a series of synthetic polymers exhibiting similar mechanical behavior. Polyisoprene, for example, is a synthetic rubber that exhibits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... strain rate) allows more time for deformation and thus alters the stress-strain curve and lowers the tensile strength. This effect is shown in Fig. 6 for a rubber-modified polycarbonate. Fig. 6 Stress-strain curves for rubber-modified polycarbonate at room temperature as a function of strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 19 ). Another type of additive that has been demonstrated to increase the ESC resistance of plastic is rubber impact modifiers, in particular for styrenic polymers ( Ref 20 , 21 ). It has been identified that the rubber particle size is important, with larger particles having improved ESC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (containing 30 wt% glass fibers), and short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (containing 35 wt% glass fibers and ~10 wt% rubber impact modifier) were obtained at different (room and elevated) temperatures under R = −1 and R = 0.1 cyclic loading ( Ref 10 – 12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of polycarbonate) Low strength and ductile, with yielding and large permanent deformation (cold drawing), leading to several hundred percent elongation (low-density polyethylene) Low strength and elastic, with no apparent permanent deformation (soft rubber). Note that the strength and toughness of elastomers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... polymer chains. These materials have cross-links between the polymer chains that inhibit the sliding of polymer chains past each other. Elastomers are typified by natural rubber and by a series of synthetic polymers that exhibit similar mechanical behavior. The physical state of a polymer under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... as destructive burning, as manifested by light, flame, heat, and/or smoke. The combustible materials in most fatal fires are natural or synthetic polymers, such as those used in the manufacturing of upholstered furniture or mattresses ( Ref 1 ). Moreover, the plastics that are most widely used are the least...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) for the synthetic lubricants that are widely used at elevated temperatures. Molybdenum high-speed tool steels, such as M1, M2, and M10, are suitable for use to approximately 425 °C (800 °F) in oxidizing environments. Grades M1 and M2 maintain satisfactory hardnesses to approximately 480 °C (900 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 260 Polyisoprene    Cis: natural rubber −73 −100 28 80    Trans: gutta percha … … … … Polymethylpentene (poly-4-methyl-1-pentene) 29 85 250 480 Polybutadiene (poly-1,2-butadiene, butadiene rubber)    Syndiotactic −90 −130 154 310    Isotactic −90 −130 120 250...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... molecules, their nature (thermosets, rubbers, and thermoplastics), and/or their temperature and rate-dependency characteristics. For instance, it has been shown that the presence of the crystalline phase in thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene (PE) impacts the creep properties. At a fixed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... elements of engineering polymers Table 1 Basic elements of engineering polymers Location Characteristics Examples 1 Flexible and crystallizable chains PE PP PVC PA 2 Cross-linked amorphous networks of flexible chains Phenol-formaldehyde cured rubber Styrenated polyester 3...